- 1 Joan of Arc
- 2 Joan of Arc’s Early Life
- 3 Joan of Arc and the Siege of Orléans
- 4 Downfall of Joan of Arc
- 5 Joan of Arc Burned at the Stake
- 6 Joan of Arc: From Witch to Saint
- 7 Joan of Arc: Why Is She A Saint?
- 8 Joan of Arc
- 9 Joan’s mission
- 10 Action atOrléans
- 11 Victories and coronation
- 12 Ambitions for Paris
- 13 Further struggle
- 14 Joan of Arc
- 15 Who Was Joan of Arc?
- 16 Historical Background
- 17 Early Life
- 18 Meeting with the Dauphin
- 19 The Battle of Orléans
- 20 Capture and Trial
- 21 Death
- 22 Retrial and Legacy
- 23 Fact Check
- 24 Joan of Arc: Becoming a Saint
Joan of Arc
Having St. Elizabeth Ann Seton as our Patron Saint gives us great pride! It was Elizabeth Bayley Seton who became the first native-born American to be canonized by the Catholic Church, and she was the first woman to achieve this honor. Elizabeth grew raised in the “cream” of New York society as a member of the Episcopal Church, having been born two years before the American Revolution. Throughout her life she was an avid reader, consuming material ranging from biblical to current fiction. Although she came from a privileged upbringing, Elizabeth’s childhood was calm, uncomplicated, and at times lonely despite her social standing.
Elizabeth married William Seton, a wealthy young man with whom she had fallen in love and who had proposed to her the previous year.
However, this period of Elizabeth’s life would prove to be a temporary respite from the many deaths and separations she would experience during the course of her career.
Following then, things started moving quickly – and with catastrophic consequences.
- Adding insult to injury, Will also suffered from a variety of medical issues.
- While in Italy, Will succumbed to TB.
- Elizabeth’s heart was drawn to God and eternity as a result of her frequent separations from loved ones caused by death or distance.
- Elizabeth’s generosity, tolerance, excellent sense, humor, and civility won the hearts of everyone she met throughout her stay in Italy.
- Elizabeth’s hunger for the Eucharist, also known as the Bread of Life, was a powerful motivating factor in her decision to join the Catholic faith.
- Her choice was guided by the Blessed Virgin, and Elizabeth became a member of the Catholic Church in 1805.
- At the advice of the head of St.
A group of young ladies, including herself and two others, who assisted her in her endeavors, founded the first free Catholic school in the United States.
Despite the fact that Elizabeth became a nun, she continued to be a mother.
Lizzie Seton made her vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience on March 25, 1809, in the presence of her family.
She continued to lead her children despite the fact that she was suffering from TB at this point in time.
By 1818, the sisters had built two orphanages as well as a second school in addition to their initial institution.
Elizabeth had a strong sense that God was preparing to call her over the last three years of her life, which filled her with delight.
Only sixteen years after becoming a Catholic, Mother Seton died in 1821 at the age of 46, leaving a legacy of faith. 1975 was the year when she was elevated to the status of saint. Her feast day is observed on January 4 by the Catholic Church.
Joan of Arc’s Early Life
Jeanne d’Arc (or Joan of Arc in English) was the daughter of Jacques d’Arc, a tenant farmer from the town of Domrémy in northeastern France, who was born in 1412 and died around 1415. Her religious mother, Isabelle Romée, fostered in her a great love for the Catholic Church and her doctrines, despite the fact that she was never taught to read or write herself. A violent struggle with England (later known as the Hundred Years’ War) had been tearing France apart for some years, and England had acquired the upper hand throughout this time.
In 1422, his son, Henry VI, succeeded him as King of England.
At the age of 13, Joan began to hear voices, which she believed were messages from God, tasked with entrusting her with a mission of monumental importance: to redeem France by removing its enemies and establishing Charles as the country’s legitimate monarch.
Her father sought to arrange a marriage for her when she was 16 years old.
Joan of Arc and the Siege of Orléans
In 1412, Jeanne d’Arc (also known as Joan of Arc in English) was born in the village of Domrémy, in the northeastern French province of Poitou-Charentes. Her father was a tenant farmer named Jacques d’Arc, and she was his daughter. Her religious mother, Isabelle Romée, fostered in her a great love for the Catholic Church and its doctrines, despite the fact that she was never taught to read and write. A violent struggle with England (eventually known as the Hundred Years’ War) had been tearing France apart for some years, and England had acquired the upper hand throughout this period.
The succession to him was taken up by Henry VI in 1422.
After hearing voices for the first time at the age of 13, Joan concluded that they were messages from God, entrusting her with a task of immense importance: to redeem France by eliminating its enemies and establishing Charles as the country’s legitimate monarch.
Joan made a vow of celibacy in order to fulfill her heavenly destiny. Her father sought to arrange a marriage for her when she was 16 years old. She successfully persuaded a local court that she should not be forced to accept the proposed union.
Downfall of Joan of Arc
Having achieved such an incredible triumph, Joan’s fame among the French army went far and wide. After accompanying Charles over enemy territory to Reims, conquering cities that had opposed him by force, she and her supporters were instrumental in permitting his coronation as King Charles VII in July 1429. Joan suggested that the French should take advantage of their position by attempting to reclaim Paris, but Charles remained hesitant, despite warnings from his favorite at court, Georges de La Trémoille, that Joan was growing too strong.
On April 1, 1430, King Henry IV of France sent Joan to defend Compiégne against a Burgundian invasion.
The Burgundians captured her and transported her with much pomp to the fortress of Bouvreuil, which was in the control of the English commander in Rouen at the time.
Joan of Arc Burned at the Stake
Because of her remarkable triumph, Joan’s renown among the French army went far and wide. After accompanying Charles over enemy territory to Reims, capturing cities that had opposed him by force, she and her troops were instrumental in facilitating his coronation as King Charles VII on July 14, 1429. Joan suggested that the French should take advantage of their position by attempting to reclaim Paris, but Charles remained hesitant, despite warnings from his favorite at court, Georges de La Trémoille, that Joan was becoming uncontrollably influential.
On April 1, 1430, King Charles I of France ordered Joan to defend Compiégne against a Burgundian attack.
The Burgundians captured her and transported her with much pomp to the fortress of Bouvreuil, which was in the control of the English commander in Rouen at the time of the capture.
Joan of Arc: From Witch to Saint
Following such a miraculous victory, Joan’s reputation among the French forces spread far and wide. After accompanying Charles across enemy territory to Reims, taking towns that had resisted him by force, she and her followers were instrumental in facilitating his coronation as King Charles VII in July 1429. Joan suggested that the French should take advantage of their position by attempting to reclaim Paris, but Charles remained hesitant, despite warnings from his favorite at court, Georges de La Trémoille, that Joan was becoming too influential.
In the spring of 1430, the king assigned Joan to defend Compiégne against a Burgundian invasion.
The Burgundians captured her and transported her with great fanfare to the castle of Bouvreuil, which was under the control of the English commander at Rouen.
Joan of Arc: Why Is She A Saint?
Joan of Arc is a saint who is tough to comprehend in a number of ways. She is, of course, regarded as a national heroine in France. However, this is a significant element of the challenge. Is she only a national figure with relevance only within a single country? What kind of global significance does she have? In the first place, what holy importance does she have even within her own country? It is true that she has been accepted as an image of Catholic pride in France, but she has the potential to become a simple symbol of bigotry as well.
- Although this may be true, it is definitely how she was perceived by many people even during her own lifetime – therefore the idea is not really new after all.
- She may have been on the side of good, truth, and justice, but didn’t she seem a little off-balance at times?
- During the Middle Ages, the long-running territorial battles between England and France were scarcely characterized as ‘ethnic’ in nature.
- In fact, it was the French who initiated the annexation of England in the first place.
- And the English army did prefer to use France as a training ground for the horrors they would later perpetrate on one other at home during their ongoing civil war, which was known as the ‘Wars of the Roses’ despite its rather benign sounding name.
- Throughout the time period in question, the large Duchy of Burgundy was an autonomous entity that fought mostly against the English, and other areas of modern-day ‘France’ (such as Brittany) were historically wholly different kingdoms from the rest of France.
- And there is little question that she made the unification of France under the leadership of the Dauphin (the son of the hereditary King of the Franks) her particular purpose.
So, why isn’t she merely a political hero like William Wallace, who achieved much the same thing for Scotland and died in a similarly terrible manner, at the hands of the Normans and the English, like Wallace?
It’s important to note that this was no less contentious and difficult back then than it is now.
Our generation could have received her with cold skepticism, even ridicule, and relegated her to a psychiatric facility.
She was hailed as God’s agent of freedom and triumph by her own side for a time, but she was promptly abandoned by her sponsors when it became politically convenient to do so, as she had been before.
She was not, however, a political firebrand.
Despite the fact that she was an ignorant adolescent girl from a remote and small rural town, whose main exposure to the outside world had been caring geese and sheep, her most important goal as a child had been to attend her first communion!
Joan is a riddle wrapped in a mystery.
Only a few of historical people may more accurately be described as having “marched to a different song.” The voices she heard in her thoughts took her down some very weird roads indeed.
It is impossible not to get a strong feeling of sanity after reading contemporaneous reports of her life and recordings of her speeches.
And her voices took her straight into the thick of world politics, along with all of its smoke, thunder, and lightning.
It didn’t matter whose spirits propelled her on; they all transmitted to her own spirit a strong sense of urgency as well as an almost implacable sense of her own destiny.
She was motivated by a sense of mission.
Even she seemed to have had difficulty comprehending why she was being asked to do what she did.
She realized that she had to act at the direction of God, and she did so, despite the fact that the odds were against her and all natural expectations were against her.
After all, even if she was misinformed or misguided about the nature of her mission, her purpose was to carry out God’s will with no regard for her own interests, her own reputation, or her own personal safety.
And yet, how different her existence and her chosen work are from one another!
The reality of the matter is that, despite all of the confusion, the Catholic Church did finally canonize the Maid of Orleans, in 1926.
However, we might still inquire as to what the everlasting character of that mission was.
What was God’s purpose in ordering St.
In order to address this question, we must step back from the specifics of the hundred-year conflict between France and England and adopt a broader perspective.
Joan, and see a bit of what the Wisdom of God had already foreseen, if you will, in terms of what the Wisdom of God already knew.
Joan of Arc was burnt at the stake for her faith.
In 1536, Henry VIII of England entered into a split with the Universal Church, allowing Protestantism to spread over the entire island, as every schoolboy is aware.
France, on the other hand, maintained its religious beliefs and served as a haven for many, a location for exiled seminaries, and a base from which to rebuild the Church in northern Europe.
Vincent de Paul and St.
A slew of new religious organizations were also established in the city, some of which would go on to form the foundation of England’s Catholic renaissance centuries later.
As a result of the French Revolution, much of the good that had been accomplished in previous centuries was destroyed, and subsequent persecutions pushed the French clergy, in an ironic reversal of roles, to seek refuge in Edwardian England.
It seems to be typical of God’s methods that he picked the most improbable of persons to accomplish his goals in this manner.
She was a simple person who was completely receptive to God’s guidance.
And as a result, the message and the assignment were received with open arms by her, and she devoted herself to them without hesitation or complaint.
And we may respond that the more implausible the vessel that houses the riches appears to be, the more obvious it becomes that it is the work of God, rather than the effort of any human authority.
Either she was a gift from God, or she was a victim of witchcraft, as Shakespeare dutifully depicted her in Henry VI, Part I of his play Hamlet.
Either he was a child of God or he was possessed, which is what they claimed throughout his unlawful trial, just as they did with Joan, according to the authorities.
We must address the reality that she achieved what she did via a great deal of prayer and penance, encouraging her soldiers to return to the sacraments and to the holiness of life as the only guarantee of triumph if she was a demon.
She obviously acted as if she had been sent by God, and her death was a testament to her faith in God’s promises to her, despite the fact that she had nothing left to gain in this life and was under the most severe mental duress to deny what she knew in her heart.
Clearly stated in the cause for her canonization, Joan of Arc’s sanctity did not lie in her political and military achievements, which were already insufficient due to the vacillation and duplicity of others, but rather in her innocence of heart.
It is well documented that she was naive in other respects as well, and that she expected people to hold themselves to high standards.
She was a young woman of intense prayer who abhorred the slightest sin among her soldiers – lying, swearing, coarseness – and pleaded with them to fight in a state of grace by going to confession before any battle.
She did not, however, take delight in conflict, fighting, or the equipment associated with battle.
In the end, she was merely a young girl who was willing to sacrifice all of her natural expectations and sensibilities in order to complete the work at hand.
That powerful grace, which was so intense and concentrated in her brief life and frail form, was met by spiritual forces in the ether, who were also opposed to her.
Joan’s life will help you to better comprehend the dreadful hate that was stoked against her by the forces of Hell in the centuries that followed.
This was the time of day when she felt most vulnerable.
Besides being forced to a slew of humiliating and utterly unnecessary medical procedures, she was also exposed to a never-ending barrage of questioning about her “voices” from theological experts, who tried every trick in the book to trap her.
One of these has even made it into the new Catechism of the Catholic Church.
If she had responded affirmatively, she would have been found guilty of heresy on the grounds of spiritual presumption.
There was nothing fair or consistent with the Church’s procedural rules about any of this.
“If I am, may God keep me in that state, and if I am not, may God make it right as soon as He is able.” she said.
Joan had been terrified of fire since she was a child, and it was while she was imprisoned, alone and under threat of rape and torture that she displayed a rare sign of weakness, denying that the voices she had heard were genuine.
Taking back her denial, she embraced the martyrdom that would inevitably befall her with the characteristic courage that she was known for.
This woman must have experienced a terrible dark night of the soul, similar to the inner devastation experienced by our Lord as he died on the cross.
However, it would be another five hundred years before she was officially canonized.
Joan rose from the ashes to serve as the French people’s symbolic leader in their struggle against another and more tyrannical foe in the form of Hitler’s Nazi Germany.
She is a saint of simplicity, obedience, and unwavering devotion to one’s responsibilities.
In her military duty to God and his intentions, she resembles a fascinating Old Testament character — a cross between Samson and Deborah in appearance.
She was obedient to God’s will, but she was no pushover when it came to the men in positions of authority who surrounded her.
She insisted on being heard when she knew she was speaking the truth, and she was right to insist.
Her womanly nature, on the other hand, was never lost or suppressed.
She was well aware of his frailty, yet she remained patient and sensitive, repeating her attempts to keep him together and guide him in the right way, even when his worldliness and self indulgence drove her to the point of exhaustion.
But, above all, she was concerned about people’s souls, even those of her fiercest adversaries.
She hoped that they would listen to the voice of God communicating through his handmaid before it was too late for them to do so.
Joan was canonized so lately, less than a hundred years ago, that she was so revered.
This time, however, it is not a schism in the Church of Europe that is in danger, but a battle for hearts and minds all over the world.
For us to succeed, she must have a kind heart that sets aside personal goals, foregoes a calm life of luxury, and throws herself into the conflict, fighting for the truth as though it were a matter of life and death.
Following her ascension to the throne of God with her devoted protectors – St. Michael, St. Catherine, and St. Margaret – she may return to earth to whisper into our ears what God expects of us in this turbulent era. If that’s the case, let’s hope that at least some of us are paying attention.
Joan of Arc
Frequently Asked Questions
Why is St. Joan of Arc famous?
Saint Joan of Arc, also known as the Maid of Orléans or the Pucelle d’Orléans, was a French peasant girl who, believing that she was acting under divine guidance, led the French army in a decisive victory atOrléans during the Hundred Years’ War. She was born in Domrémy, Bar, France, in 1412 and died in Rouen on May 30, 1431. She was canonized on May 16, 1920; her feast day is Joan was captured a year later and burnt to death by the English and their French allies because she was considered a heretic.
- Her father was a tenant farmer in Domrémy, a town on the border of the duchies of Bar and Lorraine.
- Her effort to evict the English and their Burgundian allies from the Valois realm of France was aided by the voices of St.
- Catherine of Alexandria, and St.
- In addition to having extraordinary mental and physical fortitude, Joan exhibited a strong sense of common sense, and she possessed many characteristics that were indicative of the female visionaries who were a notable feature of her period.
The throne of France was in dispute at the time between thedauphinCharles (laterCharles VII), son and heir of theValoiskingCharles VI, and theLancastrianEnglish kingHenry VI, who reigned in England at the time. Having formed an alliance with the soldiers of Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy (whose father, John the Fearless, had been slain by supporters of the dauphin in 1419), Henry’s armies were occupying most of the northern section of the realm. A further source of seeming despair for the dauphin’s cause was the fact that, five years after his father’s death, he had still not been crowned by the end of 1427.
- It was possible to question the legitimacy of the dauphin’s claim to be king of France as long as he remained unconsecrated, but this was unlikely.
- Before the Burgundian threats, the people had already been forced to evacuate their houses.
- He did not take the 16-year-old or her visions seriously, and she was forced to return home with her family.
- This time, however, her serene steadfastness and piety won her the respect of the people, and the captain, convinced that she was neither a witch nor a person of feeblemindedness, let her to accompany him to the dauphin atChinon to see him.
- She arrived in Chinon after crossing enemy territory and journeying for 11 days through the desert.
- His advisers offered him conflicting opinions, but he agreed to meet with her two days later when she requested it.
- Her interrogation by religious officials was ordered by the dauphin in the presence of Jean duc d’Alençon, a distant relative of Charles, who appeared to be friendly toward her during the interrogation process.
These tests, of which no record has survived, were prompted by the ever-present dread of heresy that persisted beyond the conclusion of the Western Schism in 1417, which prompted the examinations.
As a result of the terrible circumstances at Orléans, which had been under English occupation for months, the churchmen recommended that the dauphin make use of her, as the city had been under siege for months.
Joan of Arc responds to the questioning of the prelates in this video.
Joan made her way back to Chinon.
She had her standard painted with an image of Christ in Judgment, and she had a banner produced in the name of Jesus to fly over the battlefield.
At response to the query of whether or not there was an asword, she stated that one would be discovered in the church of Sainte-Catherine-de-Fierbois, and indeed one was discovered there.
Blois was the staging point for French troops numbering several hundred men, and on April 27, 1429, they embarked on their journey to Orléans. Almost completely surrounded by a ring of English strongholds, the city had been under siege since the 12th of October, 1428. As soon as Joan and one of the French commanders, La Hire, arrived with supplies on April 29, she was informed that action would have to be postponed until more reinforcements could be brought in. At some point during the evening of May 4, while Joan was resting, she suddenly sprang to life and declared that she must go and attack the English.
The arrival of the French roused them, and they captured the fort.
On the morning of May 6 she crossed to the south side of the river and moved toward another fort; the English promptly withdrew in order to defend a stronger position nearby, but Joan and La Hire assaulted them and captured it by storm.
Joan was wounded but quickly recovered and returned to the fight, and it was in part because of her example that the French commanders were able to keep the attack going until the English surrendered to the French.
Victories and coronation
Blois was the staging point for French forces totaling several hundred men, who moved out for Orléans on April 27, 1429. Almost completely encircled by a ring of English castles, the city has been besieged since October 12, 1428. As soon as Joan and one of the French commanders, La Hire, arrived with supplies on April 29, she was informed that combat would have to be postponed until further soldiers could be brought in. At some point during the evening of May 4, as Joan was resting, she suddenly came to life and declared that she would go and battle the English.
She awakened the French, who stormed the fort and captured it.
She crossed to the south side of the river and moved toward another fort; the English promptly withdrew in order to defend a better position nearby, but Joan and La Hire assaulted and captured the fort by storm the following morning.
Even though Joan was wounded, she swiftly returned to the fray, and it was in part because of her example that the French leaders were able to keep up the pressure on the English until they were forced to surrender.
The following day, the English were observed retiring, but because it was a Sunday, Joan refused to allow any pursuit to take place.
Ambitions for Paris
The army of Charles VII marched across Champagne and the Île-de-France for a month after leaving Reims on July 20, 1540. As of August 2, the monarch chose to withdraw from the provinces and return to the Loire, thereby abandoning any plans to invade Paris. The loyal communities that would have been abandoned to the mercy of the enemy expressed their dismay at the prospect. Joan, who was opposed to Charles’s choice, wrote to the residents of Reims on August 5 to reassure them that the duke of Burgundy, who was then in charge of Paris, had agreed to a fortnight’s ceasefire, after which it was hoped that he would relinquish control of the city to the king of France.
- As a result of her widespread praise, Joan had become, according to a 15th-century chronicler, the French people’s darling.
- On August 14, the French and English soldiers came face to face near Senlis for the second time in as many days.
- Meanwhile, the cities of Compiègne, Beauvais, Senlis, and other towns north of Paris submitted to the king’s authority.
- Joan, on the other hand, was growing increasingly agitated, and she believed it was imperative to travel to Paris.
- Charles arrived on September 7th, and on September 8th, an attack was launched between the gates of Saint-Honoré and Saint-Denis, with the goal of capturing the city.
- Despite being wounded, she persisted in encouraging the men until she was forced to quit the attack.
The army of Charles VII marched across Champagne and the Île-de-France for a month after leaving Reims on July 20th. As of August 2, the monarch chose to withdraw from the provinces and go toward the Loire, thereby abandoning any plans to invade Paris. The loyal communities that would have been abandoned to the mercy of the enemy voiced their displeasure at the prospect of being left behind. Despite her disapproval of Charles’s choice, Joan wrote on August 5, 1642, to reassure the residents of Reims that the duke of Burgundy, who was then in charge of Paris, had agreed to a fortnight’s ceasefire, after which it was expected that he would surrender Paris to the king.
- With her achievements all around the world, Joan was now considered the French national hero, according to a 15th-century chronicler.
- French and English soldiers clashed once more at Senlis on August 14, this time in the vicinity of the city of Paris.
- Meanwhile, the king obtained the capitulation of Compiègne, Beauvais, Senlis, and other cities north of Paris.
- Joan, on the other hand, was growing increasingly agitated, and she believed it was imperative that she travel to Paris immediately.
- Charles arrived on September 7th, and on September 8th, an attack was launched between the gates of Saint-Honoré and Saint-Denis, with the objective of capturing the city.
Despite being wounded, she persisted in encouraging the men until she was forced to quit the battle altogether. Despite the fact that she and Alençon attempted to repeat the assault the following day, they were forced to retire by the council of Charles the Second.
Joan of Arc
Joaquin de Arc was a French military captain who became a martyr and saint after leading her country’s army to victory against the English during the Hundred Years’ War by the direction of God.
Who Was Joan of Arc?
Joan of Arc became a national hero of France when she led the French army to victory against the English at the Battle of Orléans when she was just 18 years old. Following her capture by the English and their French partners a year later, Joan was executed at the stake for being a heretic. On May 16, 1920, she was canonized as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church, more than 500 years after her death.
At the time of Joan of Arc’s birth, France was immersed in a long-running struggle with England known as the Hundred Years’ War; the conflict began over who would be the heir to the French crown, and it continued until the end of the century. Towards the beginning of the 15th century, northern France was a lawless frontier inhabited by roving armies.
Joan of Arc, often known as “The Maid of Orléans,” was born in Domremy, France, in 1412, and became famous as a result of her exploits. Joan d’ Arc was the daughter of poor tenant farmers Jacques d’ Arc and his wife, Isabelle, also known as Romée, and she received her upbringing from her mother, who taught her piety and household skills. Joan stayed at home with the animals and learned to sew, despite the fact that she had never traveled outside the country. King Henry V of England launched an invasion of northern France in 1415.
- Following the 1420 Treaty of Troyes, the French monarchy was entrusted to Henry V, who served as regent for the insane King Charles VI.
- After only a few months, however, both Henry and Charles died, leaving Henry’s young son as monarch of the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom.
- This was also the time period in which Joan of Arc began to experience divine visions that encouraged her to live a devout life.
- Michael and St.
Meeting with the Dauphin
When Joan’s visions told her to go to Vaucouleurs, she did so, and made contact with Robert de Baudricourt, the garrison commander and a supporter of Charles, she followed the instructions. In 1429, Baudricourt first declined Joan’s request, but after realizing that she was garnering support from the peasants, he relented and granted her the use of a horse and an escort consisting of several soldiers. Joan had chopped her hair and dressed in men’s clothes for her 11-day voyage over enemy country to Chinon, where Charles’ court was being held, which would take place.
Joan, on the other hand, won him over when she accurately identified him amid a gathering of members of his court when he was disguised incognito.
Charles had notable theologians evaluate her while she was still on the fence. Joan, according to the clerics, exhibited only piety, virginity, and humility, and there was nothing wrong with her.
The Battle of Orléans
Finally, Charles granted Joan of Arc, who was 17 at the time, armor and a horse, and let her to follow the army to Orléans, which was under siege by the English. A series of fights between May 4 and May 7, 1429, saw the French forces wrest control of the English defences from the English. Joan was wounded, but she recovered and returned to the front lines to support a last offensive. By the middle of June, the French had defeated the English and, in the process, destroyed their supposed invincibility.
Her encouragement to him to go to Reims to be proclaimed king continued even after the victory at Orléans; however, Charles and his counselors were more cautious.
During the ceremony, Joan was by his side, assuming a prominent position.
Capture and Trial
Joan was dispatched to Compiègne in the spring of 1430 by King Charles VII in order to fight the Burgundian attack. As a result of the struggle, she was knocked off her horse and dumped outside the town’s entrance gates. During her captivity, the Burgundians negotiated with the English, who considered her to be a valuable propaganda prize, and detained her for several months before releasing her. Last but not least, the Burgundians swapped Joan for a sum of 10,000 francs. Charles VII was perplexed as to what to do.
- Joan was given up to church officials, who urged she be prosecuted as a heretic, despite the fact that her acts were directed against the English occupation troops.
- The trial was first held in public, but it was moved to private after Joan outperformed her accusers in court.
- Instead of being detained in a Catholic jail with nuns as guards, she was detained in a military detention facility with no nuns.
- She defended herself by tying the uniforms of her men together with dozens of ropes to keep them from moving.
The tribunal found Joan of Arc guilty of heresy on May 29, 1431, and sentenced her to death. On the morning of May 30, she was led to the marketplace in Rouen, where she was burnt at the stake in front of an estimated 10,000 spectators.
She was 19 years old at the time. One tale surrounding the event claims that her heart was unharmed by the flames and therefore survived. Her ashes were collected and dispersed in the Seine River when she passed away.
Retrial and Legacy
Following Joan’s death, the Hundred Years’ War dragged on for another 22 years across Europe. In the end, King Charles VII was able to keep his throne, and he conducted an investigation that resulted in Joan of Arc being found legally innocent of all allegations and named as a martyr in 1456. France’s patron saint, she was canonized as a saint on May 16, 1920, and she is known as “La Sainte Marie.” HISTORY Vault has the documentary “Joan of Arc: The Virgin Warrior.”
We aim for accuracy and fairness in all we do. If you see something that doesn’t appear to be quite right, please let us know!
Joan of Arc: Becoming a Saint
The judges condemned herfalsely, damnably and criminally, and put her to death in a cruel manner byfire.
I demand that her name berestored.” Isabelle Rom�e, Jehanne’s mother, November 7, 1455
The first and most difficult phase is beatification, which is generally the most difficult. For the cause to be beatified, the promoters must swear for four genuine miracles, which must be witnessed by four witnesses. If the applicant has established a religious order, he or she will only need to perform one miracle. When it came to Joan of Arc, the Pope gave her a pardon since she had saved France. This seems to be reasonable! As a result, three miracles that were accepted were required for Joan to be beatified.
These miracles were acknowledged as genuine by the community.
Following the beatification (or declaration of blessedness) of a person, the faithful are permitted to revere that figure. However, this is not widely acknowledged and is typically restricted to the towns in which the individual has a connection.
After a person has been pronounced beatified, the next step is to have him or her canonized. It is need to demonstrate two more miracles in order to be canonized. Joan of Arc is credited with two miracles that helped to establish her sainthood: the healing of a woman’s foot from TB and the mending of a hole in the sole of a man’s foot.
Joan of Arc’s Journey to Sainthood
The beginning of Joan’s road to sainthood occurred in the year 1449, when the French retook control of Rouen, the city of Joan’s execution. It had been eighteen years since Joan had been set ablaze. Her recollection was never forgotten. Guillame Bouill, the King’s advisor and theologian, was tasked with conducting an inquiry into the Queen’s trial in 1449, according to King Charles. The King expressed his desire to know the truth about the trial and the way in which it was handled in a letter to the court.
In his conclusion, he stated that the King should not be connected with a person who had been convicted as a witch, and that a reassessment of the case should be performed as quickly as practicable.
Trial of Rehabilitation
Politics undoubtedly had a role in this second trial; nevertheless, this does not take away from the reality that the Trial of Rehabilitation brought significant evidence to light, clearly demonstrating the illegality of the previous trial as well as several flaws in procedural procedure. The Trial of Rehabilitation, a new trial inParison that began on November 7, 1455, was the first of its kind. Four examinations were held, one each in Dommy, Rouen, Orl ans, and Paris, with a total of 150 witnesses being heard in each location.
Joan’s injustice was commemorated with a cross being placed in the Old MarketSquare in Rouen, where she had been executed.
With the transformation of her reputation from witch to holy maid, she had began her journey.
Petitioning Pope Pius IX
After four hundred fourteen years had passed, Bishop Dupanloup of Orl ans had the brilliant idea of inviting all the bishops of the towns that Joan had marched through on her journey to Reims to the yearly May 8 celebration of the town sliberation. This was the first time this had been done. The Bishop delivered an impassioned address about Joana’s significance as a patriot and as a Catholic believer. Together with Bishop Dupanloup, the eleven bishops present presented a solemn request to Pope Pius IX in Rome to initiate the process of canonization.
As a result, Joan would get a just reward for her efforts in rescuing her nation, as well as for saving it from the heresy that may have posed a threat in the future.
Rome began working on the Bishops’ appeal in 1894 and completed it in 1896. On April 11, 1909, Pope Pius X issued a decree declaring Joan of Arc a saint.
Saint Joan of Arc
Joan was canonized with great festivity on May 16,1920, in Saint Peter�s Basilica, finally restoring her reputation among thefaithful. That same year, the French government officially made May 8a national holiday. Her celebrated feast day is May 30, the day of herdeath.Whether one is Catholic or not, Saint Joan of Arcserves as an example of a holy soul who conformed herself to God�s will. Shewas then given all necessary means to accomplish the tremendous tasksappointed to her. In the words of Pope Pius X, �Joan has shone like a newstar destined to be the glory not only of France but of the Universal Churchas well.�