What Role Did Saint Teresa Of Ávila Play In The Counter-reformation

Saint Teresa of Avila

Frequently Asked Questions

Who is St. Teresa of Ávila?

Known as Saint Teresa of vila, she was born on March 28, 1515, in vila, Spain, and died on October 4, 1582, in Alba de Tormes. She was a Spanish nun who was one of the great mystics and religious women of the Roman Catholic Church and author of spiritual classics. Her original name was Teresa de Cepeda y Ahumada; she was canonized in 1622 and her feast day is October 15. CarmeliteReform, which she founded, restored and accentuated the austerity and contemplative nature of primitiveCarmelitelife, was named for her in honor of her accomplishments.

Teresa was appointed to the position of doctor of the church by Pope Paul VI in 1970, making her the first woman to receive this honor.

  1. Within two years, her health had deteriorated to the point where she was confined to a wheelchair for three years, during which time she acquired a passion for mental prayer.
  2. It was not until 1555 that she experienced a religious awakening, after which she lived for the next 15 years in a state of conflict between a worldly and a divine spirit.
  3. For her reform to work, the nuns needed to be completely isolated so that they might ponder on divine law and, through a contemplative life of penance, practice what she called “our vocation of restitution” for the crimes of humankind, as she put it.
  4. In response to the convent’s lack of endowment and insistence on poverty and sustenance solely from public charity, a storm of opposition erupted from municipal and ecclesiastical figures, particularly since the convent functioned without endowment.
  5. When she was in Medina del Campo, Spain, that same year, she encountered a young Carmelite priest named Juan de Yepes (after known as St.
  6. Juan founded the first monastery of thePrimitive Rule at Duruelo, Spain, a year after establishing the monastery.
  7. The Carmelite friars of the restored Primitive Rule, known as theDiscalced (or “Unshod”) Carmelites, and the Carmelites who followed the mitigated rule, known as theCalced (or “Shod”) Carmelites, got into a legal fight in 1575 when she was at the monastery at Sevilla (Seville).
  8. Her misrepresentation of the Carmelite general resulted in his ordering her to retreat to a convent in Castile and refrain from establishing any new convents; Juan was subsequently imprisoned in Toledo in 1577.
  9. Teresa, who was in poor health at the time, was then ordered to resume the reform.
  10. There is little doubt that Teresa’s asceticdoctrine is the definitive explanation of the contemplative life, and her spiritual works are some of the most widely read available today.
  11. Some of her best-known literary masterpieces on the journey of the Christian soul toward God via prayer and contemplation are The Way of Perfection(1583), The Interior Castle(1588), Spiritual Relations, Exclamations of the Soul to God(1588), andConceptions on the Love of God(1588).

Thirty-one of her poems have survived, and 458 of her letters have survived. Those in charge of editing the Encyclopaedia Britannica Patricia Bauer has made the most current revisions and updates to this document.

St. Teresa of Avila: Mystic, Reformer, Doctor of the Church

Known as Saint Teresa of vila, she was born on March 28, 1515, in vila, Spain, and died on October 4, 1582, in Alba de Tormes. She was a Spanish nun who was one of the great mystics and religious women of the Roman Catholic Church and author of spiritual classics. Her original name was Teresa de Cepeda y Ahumada; she was canonized in 1622; her feast day is October 15. CarmeliteReform, which she founded, restored and accentuated the austerity and contemplative nature of primitiveCarmelitelife, was named after her in honor of her accomplishment.

  1. Teresa was appointed to this position by Pope Paul VI in 1970, making her the first woman to hold this position.
  2. She remained there until her death, which occurred around the year 1535.
  3. Her prayers, on the other hand, were no longer answered when she was released.
  4. Carmelite life had become more casual in the 14th and 15th centuries, and Teresa began to explore returning it to its original observance of austerity, which had become more relaxed in the previous century.
  5. Her first convent (St.
  6. In response to the convent’s lack of endowment and insistence on poverty and sustenance only from public charity, a storm of criticism erupted from municipal and ecclesiastical figures, particularly because the convent was not endowed.
  7. The next year, while on a pilgrimage to Medina del Campo, Spain, she encountered a young Carmelite priest named Juan de Yepes (after known as St.

Juan founded the first monastery of thePrimitive Rule at Duruelo, Spain, a year after establishing the first monastery of the Rule.

The Carmelite friars of the restored Primitive Rule, known as theDiscalced (or “Unshod”) Carmelites, and the Carmelites who followed the mitigated rule, known as theCalced (or “Shod”) Carmelites, fought over authority in 1575 while she was at the monastery in Sevilla.

Juan was imprisoned in Toledo in 1577 after being misrepresented to the Carmelite general, who ordered her to withdraw to a convent in Castile and refrain from founding any new convents.

After much work on the part of KingPhilip II of Spain, who was familiar with and respected Teresa, a solution was reached in 1579, with the Carmelites of the Primitive Rule being granted independent authority, which was approved by Pope Gregory XIII in 1580.

She endured hard missions across hundreds of kilometers and was killed while traveling from Burgos, Spain, to vila, Spain, in a car crash.

Mother Teresa of Jesus’ autobiography is contained in the Life of the Mother Teresa of Jesus(1611), and her book of foundations, published in 1610, details the formation of her convents and missions.

Thirty-one of her poetry have survived, and 458 of her letters are still in existence today. In the Encyclopaedia Britannica, the editors write about: Patricia Bauer has made the most current revisions and updates to this post.

Teresa of Avila

St. Teresa of vila, also known as Saint Teresa of Jesus, original name Teresa de Cepeda y Ahumada, (born March 28, 1515, vila, Spain—died October 4, 1582, Alba de Tormes; canonized 1622; feast day October 15), Spanish nun who was one of the great mystics and religious women of the Roman Catholic Church and author of spiritual classics. CarmeliteReform was founded by her, and it restored and highlighted the austerity and contemplative nature of primitiveCarmelitelife. Pope Paul VI appointed St.

  1. Teresa’s mother died in 1529, and, against her father’s reluctance, she entered the Carmelite Convent of the Incarnation in Avila, Spain, most likely around 1535.
  2. After her recuperation, she, on the other hand, ceased praying.
  3. Teresa began to investigate the possibility of returning Carmelite life to its original practice of austerity in 1558, after it had become slack in the 14th and 15th centuries.
  4. In 1562, with the permission of Pope Pius IV, she founded the first Carmelite Reform convent, St.
  5. In response to the convent’s lack of endowment and insistence on poverty and sustenance solely from public charity, a storm of opposition erupted from municipal and ecclesiastical figures, especially because the convent functioned without endowment.
  6. In the same year, when visiting Medina del Campo, Spain, she met a young Carmelite priest named Juan de Yepes (after known as St.
  7. Juan founded the first monastery of thePrimitive Rule at Duruelo, Spain, a year later.
You might be interested:  What Is St Patrick The Saint Of

While she was in the convent in Sevilla, a conflict over jurisdiction occurred between the adherents of the restored Primitive Rule, known as theDiscalced (or “Unshod”) Carmelites, and the adherents of the Mitigated Rule, known as theCalced (or “Shod”) Carmelites.

Juan was imprisoned in Toledo in 1577 after being misrepresented to the Carmelite general, who ordered her to retreat to a convent in Castile and refrain from founding any new convents.

Teresa, who was in poor health, was then ordered to return to work on the reform.

In the contemplative tradition, Teresa’s austere theology is widely regarded as the standard expression of the contemplative life, and her spiritual writings are among the most frequently read available.

Her renowned written masterpieces on the advancement of the Christian soul toward God via prayer and contemplation are The Way of Perfection(1583), The Interior Castle(1588),Spiritual Relations, Exclamations of the Soul to God(1588), andConceptions on the Love of God(1589).

31 of her poetry have survived, while 458 of her letters have survived. The Encyclopaedia Britannica’s Editors Patricia Bauer has made the most current revisions and updates to this article.

General Overviews

Even though there are hundreds of works that deal with some or all aspects of Teresa’s life and works, only a few of them provide succinct summaries that introduce the most important aspects of each. Molina et al. 2008’s mini-series and Hatzfeld’s 1969 book are excellent starting points for the undergraduate student or reader who is unfamiliar with the subject. Similarly, Peers 1945 and Williams 1991 explain her life through the lens of her writings, providing general introductions that are written in a non-academic style as a result of the process.

A number of articles by Teresian scholars who suggest a variety of approaches to teaching her works as well as those of other mystics are collected in Weber 2009, which is available online.

  • Helmut Hatzfeld is the author of this work. Santa Teresa de Avila is a saint from the Dominican Republic. Twayne Publishing Company, New York, 1969. Teresa’s life and works are introduced in this publication, which is intended for an undergraduate readership. It is concise and quite readable, and it includes footnotes and a small bibliography. Cathleen Medwick is the author of this book. Cathleen Medwick is a writer who lives in the town of Medwick in the town of Cathleen in the town of Cathleen in the town of Cathleen in the town of Cathleen in the town of Cathleen in the town of Cathleen in the town of Cathleen in the town of Cathleen in the town of Cathleen in the town of Cathleen in the Teresa of Avila’s book, The Progress of a Soul, is a must-read. Doubleday Publishing Company, New York, 1999. Teresa’s life is told in a few short paragraphs. The book is beautifully decorated with portraits and paintings by today’s artists. In this film, Molina, Josefina, and Concha Velasco, as well as Hector Alterio and other directors, present many passages from her works as well as the testimony of others. Teresa de Jesus, a video on demand. Ignatius Press, San Francisco, 2008. St. Teresa of Avila is known by her English name. A mini-series shot in Spain that tells the story of Teresa’s life. The narrative is based on her primary works as well as various testimonies from the time of her death. Beginning with her initial sickness and continuing to her death in 1582, the narrative tells her story. This film series is a wonderful and complete introduction to Teresa’s biography and accomplishments, thanks to its high production qualities, superb acting, and narrative that is loyal to its sources. English subtitles accompany the Spanish language version. E. Allison Peers and Televisión Espanola (Madrid, 1984) created the original version of this program. St. Teresa of Jesus as the Mother of Carmel is shown in this portrait. SCM Press, London, 1945. In this book, you will get a clear, non-hagiographic introduction to the life of Saint Teresa, as well as numerous footnotes referencing her works. The final two chapters examine Teresa as a writer and as a saint, respectively
  • Weber, Alison, ed.Approaches to Teaching Teresa of Avila and the Spanish Mystics. New York: Routledge. The Modern Language Association of America published a book in 2009 titled Modern Languages in America. Additionally, two sections of the collected articles examine historical and theoretical viewpoints on Teresa’s writings in contrast to other mystical and religious writers of her day. Contributors represent a diverse range of disciplines and place her in the context of her peers in the field. Williams, Archbishop Rowan, provides an excellent account of her life and times. Teresa of Avila is a saint. Continuum Publishing Group, London, 1991. Despite the fact that Williams recounts her biography, he also presents her theology in clear language for the average reader, drawing on her most important books as sources. The text is well footnoted.

Return to the top of the page Users who do not have a membership will not be able to view the entire material on this page. Please subscribe or log in to continue.

How to Subscribe

Oxford Bibliographies Online is available to individuals and institutions through subscription and permanent access. For additional information or to speak with an Oxford Sales Representative, please visit this page.

Article

  • Oxford Bibliographies Online is available to individuals and organizations through a subscription-based service that provides continuous access. If you would like additional information or would like to speak with an Oxford Sales Representative, please visit the following website.

St. Teresa of Avila

Saint Teresa of Avila, a Spanish Carmelite reformer and mystic who lived during the Counter-Reformation of the 16th century, is commemorated on October 15 by Roman Catholics. Her life of prayer benefited the Church at that period. Teresa Sanchez Cepeda Davila y Ahumada was born in the Castilian city of Avila in the year 1515, the third child of a family descended from Jewish merchants who had converted to Christianity during the reign of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. She was the third child in a family descended from Jewish merchants who had converted to Christianity during the reign of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella.

  1. Since she was a youngster, Teresa has been entranced by the idea of eternity and the glimpse of God that saints have been granted in paradise.
  2. Teresa’s mother died when she was 14 years old, causing her great pain and inspiring her to develop a stronger devotion to the Virgin Mary as her spiritual mother.
  3. Despite the fact that Teresa’s spiritual advisers in later life would consider these flaws to be insignificant, they still marked a significant diminution of her religious fervour from infancy.
  4. Teresa was first disinterested in their way of life, but she quickly learned to appreciate some of its spiritual benefits.
  5. Teresa, however, was persuaded by the influence of her pious uncle Peter, as well as her study of the writings of the monk and Church Father St.
  6. She entered the Carmelite Order against the wishes of her father, who wished for her to put off the decision for a while.
  7. Over a two-year period, she suffered from terrible agony and physical immobility, and doctors predicted she would die when she fell into a coma for four days.

She made significant strides in her spiritual life over the following three years, learning to recall herself into the presence of God via peaceful contemplation and building a discipline of doing so on a regular basis.

You might be interested:  Who Is The Patron Saint Of Lost Articles

She would not re-establish this deep personal relationship to God for over twenty years, even though she continued to be an obedient Carmelite throughout that time.

In addition to astonishing sights that appeared to originate from God, she went through significant transformations within her own soul as well.

Teresa had been accustomed to meditating on Christ’s presence inside her after receiving him in the celebration of Holy Communion, and she continued to do so.

The only thing she had to do was be present and loving in his presence at any given time — something anybody could do at any time.

As part of her proposal, the Carmelites would re-establish a basic and austere way of life based on quiet and seclusion, which had been approved by the Pope in the 12th century and was said to have been established by the Old Testament prophet Elijah.

The term “discalced” refers to being barefoot, a symbol of simplicity and the simplicity to which they chose to restore the order after it had been corrupted for a period of time.

Teresa’s health failed her for the final time in 1582, while she was traveling through Salamanca with her husband.

“O my Lord, and my spouse, the long-awaited hour has here,” she exclaimed in her statement.

On October 15, 1582, St.

Among others who were canonized alongside her were three of her greatest contemporaries: St.

Ignatius Loyola, St. Francis Xavier, and St. Philip Neri, all of whom lived in the same time period. In 1970, Pope St. Paul VI named St. Teresa as one of the Church’s first two female Doctors of the Church, with Dominican St. Catherine of Siena, who lived in the 14th century.

The Society of Jesus and Teresa of Avila

During the Protestant Reformation, a large number of concerned Catholics strove to restore the spiritual essence of the Church, reform clergy abuses, and resist the spread of Protestantism. During his reign as Pope from 1534 to 1549, Pope Paul III saw the need for reform and renewal in his Church. Because of his leadership and the advent of numerous creative young Catholic intellectuals, the Church enjoyed a renaissance of vitality and development that resulted in reform and the slowing of Protestantism’s expansion.

  • The Counter Reformation, also known as the Catholic Reformation, is a series of efforts to reverse the effects of the Protestant Reformation.
  • Luther’s protest in Wittenberg was the culmination of a series of reform efforts inside the Catholic Church that began before Luther’s arrival.
  • Isabella I was particularly concerned with reforming those members of the Spanish clergy who were uneducated or immoral, and Jimenez was able to accomplish this goal.
  • He founded the University of Alcala in order to promote religious education in Spain, and he overhauled the financial operations of the Spanish Church as well.
  • The first monastery of the Oratory of Divine Love was established in Rome in 1517.
  • It was because of them that the Ursilines, a religious order of nuns devoted to teaching young women and caring for the destitute, came to be established.
  • Francis of Assisi.

The Jesuits, as they are more widely known, emerged as the most influential force in the Church’s efforts to reestablish a strong presence in the world.

Ignatius had been both a playboy and a soldier when he was a young man.

Meanwhile, he spent his downtime reading, over and over again, from his only two books in the house: a biography of Jesus Christ and a collection of short stories on the lives of Christian saints.

At the University of Paris, he pursued studies in Latin, Greek, philosophy, and theology while also preaching and accumulating an audience of devotees during his free time.

The Jesuits came to be associated with discipline, education, and the vigor of a reformed Catholic Church throughout this time period.

Schools were created by the Jesuits, who also served as advisors to kings, travelled with explorers, produced treatises on religion, science, philosophy, and history, and fought against the rise of Protestantism.

Peter Canisius is credited for restoring the Catholic faith to the majority of Southern Germany via his diligent studies and preaching.

Clearly, St. Ignatius’ new order spawned an army of intellectuals and instructors who contributed to the revitalization of the Church in Europe and the dissemination of the Christian message across Africa, Asia, and the Americas throughout the early modern period.

Nerdfighteria Wiki – Catholic Counter-Reformation: Crash Course European History #9

At least in part, the Catholic Church recognized the importance of the Protestant Reformation when it erupted in Western Europe in the 15th century. Pope Paul III convened a council to examine the possibility of altering some areas of the Catholic Church as well as attempting to halt the flow of rival Christian sects that were springing up everywhere. In some ways, the Council of Trent improved the structure, but it also reinforced many of the practices that Martin Luther and other reformers found objectionable.

  1. Description: Sources The Jesuits and the Rise of Globalization Legacies from the past and challenges facing the present.
  2. Rudolph Bell, â€Teresa of Avila,†in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History, edited by Bonnie G.
  3. Rudolph Bell, â€Teresa of Avila,†in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History, edited by Bonnie G.
  4. Women on the Margin: Three Seventeenth-Century Lives, edited by Natalie Z.
  5. Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures, edited by Lynn Hunt et al.
  6. Martin’s Publishing Company, Boston, 2019.
  7. Crash Course is now available on Patreon!

Please accept my gratitude for the following patrons’ generous monthly contributions, which enable me to maintain Crash Course free for everyone in perpetuity: Erika Prestemon, Sam Buck, Mark Brouwer, Brian Thomas Gossett, Haixiang N/A Liu, Jonathan Zbikowski, Siobhan Sabino, Zach Van Stanley, Bob Doye, Jennifer Killen, Nathan Catchings, Brandon Westmoreland, dorsey Alexa Saur, Glenn Elliott, Justin Zingsheim, Jessica Wode, Tom Trval, Jason Saslow, Nathan Taylor, Khaled El Shalakany, SR Foxley, Sam Ferguson, Yasenia Cruz, Eric Koslow, Caleb Weeks, D.A.

Noe, Shawn Arnold, Malcolm Callis, William McGraw, Andrei Krishkevich, Rachel Bright, Jirat, Ian Dundore, and others Images/Footage Commons image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons iStock Lisa Bronittsedmake55vuewg3DR sedmake55vuewg3DR sedmake55vuewg3DR sedmake55vuewg3DR sedmake55vuewg3DR sedmake55vuewg3DR sedmake55vuewg3DR sedmake55vuewg3DR sedmake55vuewg3DR ichard McGuirk is a member of the clan Want to locate Crash Course in a different location on the internet?

  • Facebook – Twitter – Tumblr – Instagram – Support Crash Course on Patreon by making a monthly donation: CC Kids:historycrashcourseeuropeanhistory Hello, everyone, and welcome to Crash Course European History with me, John Green.
  • In Europe, people were experimenting with new foods and spending more time in cities, while also making strides in trade and legal safeguards for certain.
  • Years ago, historians were convinced that the Protestant faith aided in the promotion of capitalism.
  • Others, on the other hand, believe that Martin Luther’s other worldly interests extended to this worldly pursuits such as reading, in ways that aided the country’s economic growth.
  • Furthermore, it occurred in non-Protestant societies as well.
  • Were they prepared to just relinquish their position of power in European society?
  • No.

Catholic-Reformation or Counter-Reformation leaders built a strong, even strident, Catholic-Reformation or Counter-Reformation movement that also served to lubricate the wheels of business.

Pope Paul the Third was given the duty of reforming the church, despite the fact that he, like many Renaissance popes, lived a life of luxury and indulged in corrupt activities such as electing two of his grandchildren to the cardinalate when they were still in their teens.

You might be interested:  How To Get Rid Of Grub Worms In Saint Augustine

Also, why does this pope have grandsons, you might wonder.

I pray that all of your boys will become bishops.” Then he passed away.

Several attempts to enact reforms in official meetings were thwarted by strong persons who preferred the existing quo, despite widespread support for them.

However, the Church had become tired of watching its overall influence diminish, and so in 1545, the Council of Trent, which was composed of leading church officials, convened to put a halt to the Protestant upsurge in power.

I’ve absolutely been in meetings that seemed like they went on for 18 years.

As a result, some of Europe’s most powerful monarchs and members of the aristocracy were among the supporters of Protestantism, and some Catholic authorities wished to have those Protestants on their side.

The declarations of the Council of Trent, on the other hand, were forceful and unequivocal.

However, the Inquisition now targeted Protestants and looked for heresy among conquered peoples in the New World, as well as among the Catholic Church.

It supported the significance of the Seven Sacraments, and the practice of selling indulgences continued to be practiced.

And, unlike the Protestants, all Catholics were to continue to live by faith and good deeds as their way to salvation, rather than by faith alone, as was the case previously.

Protestant reformers believed that such training was desperately needed for priests because they were being confronted by complicated Protestant challenges to Catholic doctrine.

In addition, as the Church began to strictly control weddings, it extended its influence even farther into society.

Early on, what would become a significant bulwark of Catholicism and the Counter-Reformation was taking shape, thanks to a Spanish nobleman who, after being shot as a soldier in one of Spain’s conflicts, took up the task to fortify Catholicism.

In the same way that Martin Luther struggled with his religion, Ignatius of Loyola went through spiritual agonies before emerging as a dynamic leader.

The Society of Jesus, often known as the Jesuits, was established by the Pope in 1540 as a religious organization dedicated to Ignatius’ teachings.

However, given the problems posed by Protestantism in the 1520s and later, Loyola’s strategy was particularly effective.

And all of this came at an opportune moment, given the Church’s reputation for corruption, weak morals, and, in many cases, clerical ineptitude, including a lack of knowledge of Latin language.

For the second time, the Jesuits established schools where humanistic education could coexist peacefully with religious teaching.

And it was significant because one of the attractions of Protestantism was its emphasis on greater reading, which allowed everyone to interact directly with the scriptures on a personal level.

The Jesuits are now the subject of our final point about the order.

It was through them that Catholicism truly became a universal religion, spreading to places like India and Japan, as well as Africa and the New World.

So, let’s check out the ThoughtBubble.

They desired to convert souls, but they also desired to change the way young people studied and, as a result, their worldview through the establishment of schools.

What you learn about influences your perspective on the world and the people in it.

In addition, as their order extended around the globe, they modified their techniques to suit the needs of different sections of the world.

And it was a successful strategy.

By 1650, the population had risen to more than 100,000.

As a result of their efforts, a Eurocentric globalization emerged that extended well beyond religion.

Even though their primary aim was to spread Catholicism, the Jesuits were also involved in the advancement of economic and agricultural growth.

Numerous Catholics truly took the Church’s reforms to heart, deepening their devotion in ways that, in certain cases, also contributed to expand the religious community’s influence across the world.

Teresa of vila, a Spanish mystic and nun, was among the most well-known of these figures.

I mean, mispronouncing words is something I enjoy doing, but there’s no reason to continue down that path.

But once there, she was put off by the superficiality and high society lifestyle, which included constant visits and a lot of gastronomic luxuries.

Among her many beliefs was the practice of self-flagellation, which is defined as the act of beating oneself with a whip in imitation of Christ’s agony on the cross.

At the same time, she set about establishing newdiscalceate Carmelite religious orders, which are Carmelite religious orders that do not wear shoes or walk barefoot, with the goal of restoring austerity and strictness to convent life.

Rather than attempting to produce subtle or erudite symbolism, the goal was to elicit strong emotional responses by instilling awe and evoking the power and majesty of the divine Gian Lorenzo Bernini created such effects, for example, in the plaza in front of Saint Peter’s Basilica, which is one of his most famous works.

Protestants had demolished beautiful statues of saints and the holy family, and in their place, they had built basic, unadorned churches.

All of these elements were a part of a new style known as Baroque.

Could it be that there’s a tiny little baby Jesus dressed up in a fancy outfit back there?

As you can see, this baby Jesus is decked up in a rather ritzy ensemble.

The fancy dress on the right is something I would wear if I were a tiny baby Jesus.

This is not the way a tiny baby Jesus would have dressed.

And religious monuments like this one showed the passion of the Counter-Reformation and its main leaders as well as the Counter-Reformation itself.

Additionally, Baroque music portrayed complexity via the use of counterpoint and emotionally rousing chords that inspired parishioners, both uneducated and learned, with awe and reverence in the presence of the divine.

Gentileschi, who had been trained by her father, Orazio, was raped by a guy who had been recruited to provide her with more instruction.

Is this one of the few methods to exact vengeance?

The dreadful situation Judith Slays Holofernes, for example, depicts the biblical heroine and her maid exacting vengeance on the general Holofernes, who had threatened her people’s very survival in the movie.

It is a sensory experience that also creates an emotional connection to God’s word.

People were obsessively confronting some of the most important issues of human existence between the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation during this time period, correct?

Religious upheavals were not only about how to get into heaven; they were also about who should learn, how they were to learn, and how to live a meaningful human life.

There will be much more to say about Catholicism and the role of organized religion in people’s lives later on, but first, next week, we will delve into the world of witchcraft, shamans, magic, and alchemy (to name a few topics).

That’s right, my friends, it will soon be time to transform lead into gold and frog eyes into hex potions once again.

If you’re enjoying Crash Course, we have a ton of other Crash Courses available for you to watch.

Also, as always, thank you to our animators at Thought Cafe and everyone else who contributes to this show, and a special thank you to our patrons over at Patreon.com/crashcourse for their continued support. Thank you, and remember, as they say in my hometown, to be awesome at all times.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *