What Happened On Saint Bartholomew’s Day, August 24, 1572

Massacre of Saint Bartholomew’s Day

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Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

French King Charles IX, influenced by his mother Catherine de Medici, orders the death of Huguenot leaders in Paris, setting off a chain reaction of violence that leads in the slaughter of tens of thousands of Huguenot people throughout France. Catherine had ordered the assassination of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, a Huguenot leader whom she believed was attempting to drag her son into a war with Spain, just two days before. However, Coligny was only slightly injured, and Charles vowed to look into the assassination in order to appease the enraged Huguenots after the incident.

  1. The majority of these Huguenots were in Paris at the time, commemorating the marriage of their leader, Henry of Navarre, to the king’s sister, Margaret, who was also in Paris at the time.
  2. Coligny was savagely beaten and thrown out of his bedroom window soon before dawn on August 24, and his body was never found.
  3. On August 25, Charles issued a royal command to put an end to the murdering, but his appeals went unheeded as the atrocities continued to expand.
  4. An estimated 3,000 French Protestants were slain in Paris, and as many as 70,000 in all of France.
  5. On August 24, 2012, the guy who carried out a bombing and gun assault in Norway on July 22, 2011, and murdered 77 people, was sentenced to 21 years in jail, the highest punishment possible under Norwegian law at the time.
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click here to find out more On August 24, 1914, the American poet Alan Seeger recruits for service in the French Foreign Legion during the First World War.

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On December 8, 1980, Chapman fatally shot the 40-year-old singer, who was in the audience.

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St. Bartholomew’s Day (24th August 1572)

The Treaty of Saint-Germain, signed in 1570, was a significant step toward civil peace and marked the end of the third religious conflict in Europe. It, on the other hand, enraged the hardline Catholics, who — led by the Guise family – believed it was unfairly favorable to Protestants. To bring about the marriage of Henri of Navarre, the future Henri IV, a protestant, to Marguerite de Valois, the sister of Charles IX, the queen mother Catherine de Medici worked hard to ensure that the marriage would be a permanent fixture in the history of France.

An eventual war against Flanders

Admiral de Coligny, the head of the protestant party and a favorite of the king, pushed him to take part in the war that was taking on in the Low Countries at the time of his visit (or Flanders). France should join forces with the prince of Orange in order to help people who had risen up against Philip II of Spain, according to his vision of the world. He was persuaded that waging war against Spain would be the most effective means of bringing Catholics and Protestants together in the face of a shared enemy.

An attempt on de Coligny’s life

On the 22nd of August, an attempt was made on the life of Admiral de Coligny as he was exiting the king’s council chamber at the Louvre palace. The effort was unsuccessful, but the admiral was injured as a result. This was most likely the work of the Guise family, who were staunch opponents of the Flanders war, and it is possible that Spain was involved in the scheme.

The assassination of Protestant leaders

  • The slaughter on Saint Bartholomew’s Day in Paris (1572), as shown by François Dubois, S.H.P.F.

People were taken aback by the news, and the mood in Paris was tense to the extreme. It was decided to kill Admiral de Coligny and a number of other Huguenot leaders on the night of the 23rd of August during a royal meeting that was held that night. The bells of Saint-Germain-l’Auxerrois rang out to signal the start of the siege. A brutal assassination took place at the admiral’s residence, and his body was thrown from a window. In the Louvre palace or on the streets of Paris, many Huguenot noblemen were slaughtered because they were taken unawares at night and unable to fight themselves — as Théodore de Bèze put it, they were butchered “like sheep at the slaughterhouse.”

The massacre spread all over Paris

  • Saint Bartholomew’s Day was celebrated on August 24, 1572, according to the S.H.P.F.

However, the carnage lasted for three days across the city of Paris, with the monarch unable to maintain control of the situation. The level of violence has reached an all-time high. A white cross on their caps identified them as Catholics, and they launched an all-out attack on the Protestants’ residences. The streets were crimson from the spilling of blood. The number of victims in Paris was expected to be around 4.000 people. On the 26th of August, the king addressed the House of Commons and accepted responsibility for the slaughter.

The massacre spread to the provinces

As the word spread, violence erupted throughout the provinces as well; local St. Bartholomew killings took place at La Charité, Meaux, Orléans, Lyon, and other cities from August to September 1572.

Over the course of the war, at least 10.000 individuals died in the provinces. Pope Gregory XIII was overjoyed by the news, and he immediately ordered masses of gratitude to be conducted, as well as the creation of an unique medal to commemorate the occasion.

The massacre of St. Bartholomew led to another war

The massacre of St. Bartholomew was the most horrific incident in the history of religious warfare, and it is seen as the catalyst for the fourth of the hostilities between Catholics and Protestants, which began in 1539.

The Bloody Violence of the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

During the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, the Catholic majority unleashed a wave of mob violence on the French Protestant (Huguenot) minority in order to win control of the city. During the course of two months in the fall of 1572, the massacre claimed the lives of more than 10,000 individuals.

Fast Facts: St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

  • The St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre is the name of the event. A violent attack by Catholics on the Protestant minority in France, commencing in Paris and extending to other French cities, resulting in the deaths of 10,000 to 30,000 persons over a three-month period. Important participants were King Charles IX, Queen Mother Catherine de Medici, and Admiral Gaspard de Coligny. Starting on August 24, 1572, and ending in October of that same year Location: It all started in Paris and expanded throughout the country.

In Paris, King Charles IX staged the wedding of his sister, Margaret, to Prince Henri of Navarre, which culminated in a week of celebrations and feasting for the royal family. On August 24, just four days after the wedding, French troops marched into Protestant neighborhoods with the cry “Kill them all!” The marriage of a Catholic princess to a Protestant prince was intended to help heal divisions between Catholics and the Protestant minority in France, but the plan failed when, in the wee hours of the morning, French troops marched into Protestant neighborhoods with the cry “Kill them all!”

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A Fragile Peace

In Paris, King Charles IX staged the wedding of his sister, Margaret, to Prince Henri of Navarre, which culminated in a week of celebrations and feasting in his honor. The marriage of a Catholic princess to a Protestant prince was intended to help heal divisions between Catholics and the Protestant minority in France. However, on August 24, just four days after the wedding and on the eve of St. Bartholomew’s Day, French troops marched into Protestant neighborhoods, shouting “Kill them all!”

An Assassination Attempt

As a nobleman who had commanded Huguenot troops during the late war, Admiral Gaspard de Coligny became friendly with Charles IX in the years following the Peace of Saint Germain, much to the displeasure of the King’s formidable mother, Catherine de Medici, and the anti-Huguenot faction led by the powerful Guise family. As a young monarch of just 22 years old, Charles was readily influenced by people around him, and there was widespread concern that the imposing 55-year-old de Coligny would exploit the impressionable young king to further the Huguenot cause.

  • There are no records of when Catherine de Medici and the Guises came to the conclusion that Coligny ought to be removed, but by the morning of August 22, a plot had been put in place.
  • that day.
  • Charles hurried to Coligny’s side to comfort him.
  • When Catherine and her side returned to the court, they immediately began to put pressure on the young king to take drastic measures to avert a Huguenot rebellion.
  • A 4000-strong Huguenot army was also rumored to be just beyond the city’s walls, according to the legend.

Charles, unable to bear the strain, ultimately gave the order to assassinate the Huguenots’ top leadership. Taking place the next day, on St. Bartholomew’s Day, the attack, headed by the Duke of Guise and 100 Swiss Guards, was scheduled to commence at daybreak.

The Massacre

Coligny was one of the first people to die. Axes were hacked into his body by Swiss Guards as he lay dying on his sickbed, before his body was thrown out the window into the courtyard below. In order to establish that the act had been completed, his head was cut off and transported to the Louvre. But the murders did not stop there. In the words of Protestant minister Simon Goulart, who took testimony from survivors not long after the attack, “all went with their men from house to house, wherever they thought they might find Huguenots, breaking down the doors, then cruelling massacring those they encountered without regard to sex or age.” Catholic Parisians, possibly encouraged on by militant priests, soon joined in the slaughter.

The persecution of Huguenot neighbors began in earnest when mobs began harassing and killing those who refused to repudiate their religious beliefs.

This mass killing continued for three days, and it was only ended when the majority of the Huguenots in the city had been slaughtered.

Violence Spreads

As word of the Paris massacres traveled throughout France, so did the resulting escalation of violence. From late August to early October, Catholics rose up and carried out murders against Huguenots at Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lyon, Bourges, Rouen, Orléans, Mieux, Angers, La Charité, Saumur, Gaillac, and Troyes, among other cities and towns in France. For over 450 years, historians have disagreed on how many people died in the massacre. The vast majority of historians think that around 3,000 people were slain in Paris, and probably 10,000 across the country.

A considerable number of Huguenot survivors are thought to have returned to Catholicism in order to ensure their own safety.

The Aftermath

Catholics all around Europe saw the St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre as a major success for the Church, despite the fact that it had been completely unforeseen. At the Vatican, Pope Gregory XIII commemorated the executions with special thanksgiving liturgies and the unveiling of a memorial medal, which read “Ugonottorum strages 1572” (“Huguenot Slaughter, 1572”) in honor of the Huguenots. When King Philip II of Spain heard the news, he is supposed to have burst out laughing for the first time in his life, according to legend.

According to the new treaty, Huguenots were granted amnesty for their previous actions and were awarded religious freedom as well.

It was another quarter-century until the signing of the Edict of Nantes in 1598 when fighting between Catholics and a decreasing Protestant population would erupt.

Sources

  • B. B. Diefendorf, B. B. Diefendorf, B. B. Diefendorf, B. B. (2009). The Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre: A short history accompanied by original documents Bedford/St. Martins
  • Jouanna, A. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martins
  • Jouanna, A. (2016). The Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre: Unraveling the Mysteries of a State-Orchestrated Crime (J. Bergin, Trans.). Whitehead, A. W., ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom (1904). Admiral of the French Navy, Gaspard de Coligny Methuen Publishing Company, London.

St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre – 24 August 1572

François Dubois’s painting, The Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre For the sake of completeness, here is an extract from my bookOn This Day in Tudor History on the 1572 St Bartholomew’s Day massacre before I give a link to several original source accounts of the slaughter: This day in 1572 marks the 500th anniversary of the St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre. A total of 3,000 French Protestants (Huguenots) were slain in Paris, with a further 7,000 killed in the provinces, according to estimates. Following tradition, the Queen of France, Catherine de’ Medici, convinced her son, King Charles IX of France, to order the death of prominent Huguenot leaders who had gathered in Paris for the wedding of their leader, Henry of Navarre, and his sister, Margaret of Valois.

  • Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, the commander of the Huguenots, was shot and critically wounded on the 22nd of August.
  • Whatever the facts about the assassination attempt, the gunfire sparked a flurry of controversy.
  • The Huguenots were furious and demanded an investigation into the shooting, which the King agreed to conduct.
  • This murder caused widespread violence throughout the city, with Parisians turning on Huguenot men, women, and children, murdering them and tossing their bodies into the Seine River as a result.
  • No one knows how many people died in these heinous massacres, and we have no way of knowing.
  • A total of 30,000 people died, according to historians F.
  • Wilson in their book Reformation: Christianity and the World 1500–2000.

Whatever the actual amount was, it was a horrifying occurrence. To read primary source reports, including an eye-witness story, Tudor Society members can visit this page by clickinghere.

Primary Sources

Members can have access to the primary sources page for the St Bartholomew’s Day massacre by clicking here. This page contains information such as:

  • Written by historian Jacques Auguste de Thou, this tale is based on eyewitness testimony. Account of John Foxe from Actes and Monuments, as well as a letter penned by Marguerite de Valois

The Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

Written by historian Jacques Auguste de Thou, this story is based on first-hand observation. Account of John Foxe’s actions and monuments; letter sent by Marguerite of Valois; and other sources

The dangerous decade

The causes of the atrocities in 1572 have been a source of contention among historians for centuries. Since the sixteenth century, Protestant interpreters have frequently depicted Coligny and his coreligionists as heroic victims of a premeditated plot to destroy the Huguenot movement, masterminded by the wicked queen mother, Catherine de Médicis. Drawing on Francis Hotman’sDe Furoribus Gallicis(1573), Protestant interpreters have frequently depicted Coligny and his coreligionists as heroic victims of a premeditated plot to destroy the Huguenot movement, masterminded by Catholic historians, on the other hand, have generally adhered to the royal interpretation offered by the king, Charles IX, just two days after the outbreak of violence in the city of Paris.

According to this interpretation, the king and his council authorized the bloodshed as a justifiable preemptive action to preserve the Catholic kingdom against a Protestant invasion.

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What was the impact of the St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (1572) on France

The St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre is shown in this painting. The St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, which took place in 1572, resulted in the murder of 10,000 Huguenots at the hands of French Catholics. It was one of the deadliest occurrences in early Modern French history, and it was a watershed moment in the religious conflicts that ravaged France from the 1560s to the 1590s, marking a turning point in the French Revolution. The atrocity had a significant and lasting impact. In addition to altering the direction of French history, the slaughter marked the beginning of a new and violent chapter in the Wars of Religion.

The atrocity also failed to bring the conflict to a close, instead serving to prolong it.

What caused the St. Bartholomew’s Massacre?

French society had become increasingly divided between Catholics and Protestants by the mid-16th Century, prior to the massacres. The massacre can only be understood in the context of French politics at the time, as well as the widespread religious hatred that prevailed at the time. Following the early death of King Henry II in a jousting accident in 1559, France had become increasingly vulnerable. Because of Henry II’s death, France was plunged into a period of unprecedented instability, during which Henry II’s sons all proved to be weak and incompetent rulers.

  1. The country at the same time saw a rapid increase in the number of Protestants.
  2. Many Huguenots as the French Protestants became known hoped to turn the realm into a Protestant kingdom.
  3. The Huguenots soon established churches all over France, but they were particularly strong in the South of France.
  4. Nobles led both the Protestant and the Catholic factions.
  5. The Huguenots by the Admiral Coligny and Henri of Navarre.
  6. The Guise family ignited the First war of religion in 1562 when they massacred Protestant worshipers, and it lasted until 1564, in a stalemate.
  7. These wars were marked by massacres and an endless cycle of sectarian violence.
  8. The French king was largely powerless to stop the violence and the wars.
  9. Despite the official end of the third war of religion, sectarian violence was ongoing and religious rioting was the norm.

The situation was greatly complicated by the growing power and ambitions of the Guise family and their faction. The French Royal Family was fearful of the growing power of the Guise faction and as a result, was keen not to allow them to become too powerful.

Why were the Huguenots massacred?

Coligny was assassinated at his home. Following the third religious conflict in France, King Charles IX or his counsellors, in order to restore peace to the country, arranged for a marriage between the Huguenot leader Henri of Navarre and Margaret of Valois, the sister of King Charles IX, in 1572, in order to bring the country back to peace. It was in the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris where they exchanged vows. Following the wedding, a week of festivities was held, and many Protestant nobles and leaders were there to partake in the lavish celebrations.

  1. The monarchy also believed that this marital partnership between the Valois and the Bourbon would aid in the healing of sectarian enmity and the putting an end to a decade-long civil war in France.
  2. The Catholic clergy had previously warned that the marriage would bring the wrath of God upon France if it went through.
  3. An attempt was made to kill Coligny, the leader of the French Protestants, which resulted in an upsurge in hostilities, with many Huguenots blaming the Queen Mother, Catherine de Medici.
  4. The Huguenots’ reaction, on the other hand, brought the Royal family and the Guise family together, and they agreed to mount a preemptive strike as a result of their dread of the Huguenots.
  5. Coligny and other Protestant leaders were assassinated by the Royal Guard in the early hours of the morning.
  6. Catholic mobs formed as a result of the activities of the Royal Guard, and they assaulted and murdered any Protestants they could get their hands on.
  7. Huguenots were slaughtered in a variety of gruesome ways by Catholic mobs, who then displayed their carcasses around the streets.
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Why did the massacre spread across France?

Huguenots were murdered in other cities and towns as a result of the word of the slaughter spreading throughout the country. The escalation of violence did not cease for several weeks. Huguenots were forced to flee because their Catholic neighbors were courageous enough to do it. In the atrocities that swept France in the autumn of 1572, the precise number of Huguenots who perished can never be known for certain. Both sides made exaggerated claims about the situation. Studies conducted recently have revealed that up to 10,000 Huguenots were slain during the murders, with 5,000 of these being killed in Paris alone.

After hearing the joyful news of the murder of heretics in Paris and elsewhere in France, the Pope ordered that the bells of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome be rung.

What role did the wedding of Henry of Navarre play in the massacre?

The perpetrators of the plot had not planned the mass murder of Protestants in advance. They had just taken advantage of an opportunity presented to them by the marriage of Henry of Navarre and the sister of Charles X. The attempted assassination of Coligny enraged the Huguenot population, and the Guise faction appears to have used this to urge the Royal family to engage in their plot against Coligny. The Guise strategy was to assassinate or imprison the Huguenot leadership, not to carry out a widespread Protestant murder.

A plan devised by the Duke of Guise was approved by the Queen Mother, Catherine de Medici.

At first, everything went according to plan.

What happened in Paris during the massacre?

The Huguenot community of Paris was attacked by a raging crowd of Parisians stirred up by ferocious Catholic preachers. This outcome had not been anticipated by the planners, and it was certainly not desired by them. Even though the King attempted to put a stop to the bloodshed, it took more than a week before the royal guard restored order to the city. The violence extended to neighboring cities and towns, and the Guise group thought that the Huguenots would be completely eradicated off the face of the earth.

  • The Huguenots were more eager than ever before to battle for their religious beliefs and those of others.
  • The Huguenots still controlled a large number of castles and possessed a considerable army.
  • The atrocities did not have the profound effect on the French Protestant cause that many had predicted.
  • They attempted to take numerous French Protestant strongholds, but were unsuccessful.
  • By 1594, a peace accord had been hammered out, and although the Huguenots had lost certain privileges and rights as a result of the Catholic attack, they had managed to survive.

What happened to the Huguenots after the massacre?

The St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre is shown in this contemporary woodcut. The Huguenot cause suffered a significant setback as a result of the killings. French Protestants were massacred or imprisoned in large numbers throughout their whole leadership structure. The loss of Admiral Coligny was a particularly devastating blow to the cause of French Protestantism at the time. For a period of time, the Huguenots were almost without a leader. After that, the surviving leaders were severely split between one other.

  • He chose to convert.
  • After then, there was a significant shift in the distribution of French Protestants around the country.
  • The Huguenots were being pushed farther and more back into their strongholds in the south and west of France.
  • A huge number of abjurations were issued after that.
  • According to reports at the time, many thousand Protestants abandoned their faith in the city of Paris alone.
  • They were coerced into abandoning their religious beliefs on the point of a sword or by torture.
  • Many Huguenot preachers referred to the Catholic Church as the Anti-Christ and urged for an unrelenting campaign against it in the name of the Gospel.
  • As a result, the conflict grew even more bloody and terrible as a result of this.

The Huguenots were well aware that they would be exterminated if they were vanquished, which contributed to the conflict’s length. Following the murder on St. Bartholomew’s Day, France was engulfed in a series of religious warfare that lasted until 1598.

How did St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre change France?

The St. Bartholomew Day Massacre resulted in the deaths of up to 10,000 individuals, according to some estimates. It had a significant impact on the character of the religious struggle in France. Following the slaughter, the hostilities became increasingly severe, with a significant increase in the number of individuals slain. This mirrored the sectarian hatreds that had been enflamed as a result of the atrocities. Ultimately, the slaughter was meant to bring the war to a close or at the very least to damage the Huguenot cause.

Following the tragedy, the Huguenots realized that loss meant they would be exterminated.

The atrocity did not bring the war to a close as Guise and others had hoped; instead, it merely served to prolong the conflict.

It is estimated that over three million people died as a direct and indirect result of the sectarian battles by the time the wars ended in 1598, according to historians who rely on parish records.

References

  1. Barbara B. Diefendorf, “The St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre: A Brief History with Documents,” Faber Publishing Company, London, 2008, p. 67, 89
  2. Diefendorf, “The St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre,” Faber Publishing Company, London, 2008, p. 45
  3. Diefendorf, “The St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre,” Faber Publishing Company, London, 2008, p. 75 Diefendorf, p. 75
  4. Smithers, p. 31
  5. Sutherland, p. 134
  6. Diefendorf, p. 95
  7. Fernández-Armesto and Wilson, D. Reformation: Christianity and the World 1500–2000 (Bantam Press, London, 1996) 236-37
  8. Sutherland, p. 212
  9. Diefendorf, p. 145

Admin, Ewhelan, and Eric Lambrecht made an update on January 28, 2019.

What happened on Saint Bartholomew’s Day August 24 1572 quizlet?

Asked in the following category: General The most recent update was on the 24th of March, 2020. Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre was a massacre of French Huguenots (Protestants) in Paris on August 24 /25, 1572, which was planned by Catherine de Médicis and carried out by Roman Catholic aristocrats and other members of the community. On August 24, 1572, the French Protestants, or Huguenots, were murdered in the Saint Bartholomew’s Day massacre, which began in Paris and spread throughout the country.

  1. The St.
  2. The purpose of Bartholomew’s Day of Massacre was to put a stop to a new protestant organization known as the Huguenots.
  3. What happened in Paris early in the morning on August 24, 1572, is the subject of this article.
  4. This murder caused widespread violence throughout the city, with Parisians turning on Huguenot men, women, and children, murdering them and tossing their bodies into the Seine River as a result.
  5. Bartholomew’s Day?
  6. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, which took place in 1572, resulted in the murder of 10,000 Huguenots at the hands of French Catholics.

It was one of the deadliest occurrences in early Modern French history, and it was a watershed moment in the religious conflicts that ravaged France from the 1560s to the 1590s, marking a turning point in the French Revolution. The atrocity had a tremendous effect on the community.

Queen Elizabeth’s Reaction to the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

The Queenship and Powerbook series is comprised of the following titles: (QAP)

Abstract

King Charles IX of France was the target of a massacre on St. Bartholomew’s Day in which Catholics massacred hundreds of Protestants across France, and Queen Elizabeth expressed her displeasure with him with these remarks. Two nights after a lone assassin injured Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, the head of the French Calvinist Huguenots, a gang of Catholics carried out the assassination by savagely stabbing, decapitating, and burning him to death on August 24, 1572. More than 3,000 Protestant Parisians were killed, including men, women, and children, by a horde of Huguenots who were thrown into the Seine, which became a bloody puddle of their own blood.

Protestant England was understandably appalled by the government-sponsored executions of their Huguenot brothers and sisters over the water, but Queen Elizabeth had a far more nuanced response to the violence.

Keywords

Foreign Affairs and International Relations Affectionate Relationship with the Queen Mother and King Henry VIII These keywords were not added by the writers, but rather by a computer program. Considering that this is an experimental procedure, the keywords may be modified as the learning algorithm becomes more refined.

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Notes

  1. Dudley Digges, The Compteat Ambassador: Or, Two Treaties concerning the proposed marriage of Queen Elizabeth the Great: Comprised in Letters of Negotiation of Sir Francis Walsingham, her Resident in France (Dudley Digges: The Compteat Ambassador) The responses of Lord Burleigh, the Earl of Leicester, Sir Tho: Smith, and others are included as well. a book in which the faces of the two courts of England and France as they then stood may be seen, as if through a clear mirror
  2. And in which there are many noteworthy moments of state, which are not at all reported in any history (London: Thomas Newcomb, 1655), page 298. The Three Partes of Commentaries, Containing the Whole and Perfect Discourse of the Ciuill warres of Fraunce, under the reigns of Henry the second, Frances second, and Charles the ninth, with an Addition of the cruell Murther of Admirall Chastilion and divers other Nobles, committed on the 24th daye of August, are available on Google Scholar. Anne 1572, pt. 3, bk. 10 (London: Frances Coldocke, 1574), p. 15. 3) Barbara A. Diefendorf, Beneath the Cross: Catholics and Huguenots in Sixteenth-Century Paris (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991), pp. 100–102
  3. 4) Google Scholar The following sources are recommended: 4.David J.B. Trim, “Seeking a Protestant Alliance and Liberty of Conscience on the Continent, 1558–85,” in Tudor England and its Neighbours, edited by Susan Doran and Glenn Richardson (Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), 140–143. Internet sources include Google Scholar and Susan Doran’s “Elizabeth I and Religion, 1558–1603,” published by Routledge in 1994 (pp. 6–9). Carole Levin’s The Heart and Stomach of a King: Elizabeth I and the Politics of Sex and Power (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994), pages 22–38, is a good starting point. Using Google Scholar, Susan Doran wrote “Elizabeth’s Religion: The Evidence of her Letters,” which appeared in the Journal of Ecclesiastical History, volume 50, number 6, 699–720. CrossRef Clark Hulse, Elizabeth I: Ruler and Legend (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003), pages 48–55
  4. Google Scholar
  5. Search Google Scholar
  6. 5. Susan Doran, Elizabeth I and Foreign Policy, 1558–1603, London: Routledge, 2000, pp. 29–32 (Elizabeth I and Foreign Policy), 1558–1603, Google Scholar
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