- 1 History Final Flashcards
- 2 Monastic Orders of the Middle Ages
- 3 St. Francis of Assisi – Francis’s vision and the stigmata of the Crucified
- 4 History 101 Chapter 8-9
- 5 Saint Francis Of Assisi
- 6 Five Pillars of Islam
- 7 From Riches to Rags
- 8 A Dream Changes Francis’s Life
- 9 Taking the Message to the “Heathens”
- 10 Francis Returns to Italy
- 11 For More Information
History Final Flashcards
HIST 101Western Civilization to the Year 1660 Texas AM University – College Station What was the medieval economy founded mostly on? What factors led to the growth in agricultural productivity in the medieval period? A rise in average temperature that allowed for a longer growing season Aside from boosting food yields, what were the repercussions of the migration from a two-field system to a three-field system? better yields per acre and a more equitable allocation of effort throughout the year.
Why do Historians generally not use the term feudalism today?
Central to the creation of feudal monarchy wasThe personal contact between individuals at each level of feudal society What happened in Canossa in the winter of 1077?
The first successful attempt to reestablish the spiritual authority of the Latin Church may be linked to the creation of a new form of monastery at which location?
- the practice of appointing a bishop or abbot and dressing him with the symbols of his office In 1071, Byzantium lost Armenia and wealthy Anatolia to which Turkish tribe?
- Arabic numerals, which replaced Roman numerals.
- Whoever ultimately had legal jurisdiction over priests and church courts What exactly was the Magna Carta to which King John of England gave the royal assent?
- Who was the last emperor who effectively ruled all the disparate pieces of the Holy Roman Empire?
- His general lifestyle seemed to his contemporaries more Islamic The Knights Hospitaller was initially founded for what purpose?
- The fleets they built to transport Crusaders were later used to help them dominate trade Who was most responsible for increasing interest in devotion to the Eucharist and the Virgin Mary in the twelfth century?
Francis of Assisi emphasized which religious themes in his ministry and the new monastic order Apostolate poverty and an imitation of the life of Christ Upon admission to university, medieval students typically spent four years studying the liberal arts, which meant:Advanced work in Latin grammar, rhetoric, and logic.
- ‘formation of a persecuting society’, creating a less tolerant and more hostile society In towns, manufacturing was largely controlled by whom?
- Population doubles since 1000 to 1340.
- Incorporating the warriors of defeated tribes into his own.
- because it became a tribute-collecting center for Mongol Khanate Mongol governance was centered on what key activity?
- Why did the Norse colony in Greenland cease to exist during the fourteenth century?
- Dante wrote about an immense, sophisticated subject in his Florentine vernacular language instead of in Latin.
- The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven Popes resided in Avignon, in modern-day France.
lived his faith, and his reputation spread.
why was the Stone of Destiny taken from Scotland to Westminster Abbey by Edward I?
In the 14th century, Edward III argued that he was the legitimate heir of France based on a closer relationship to Philip IV of France then that of the new Valois king because-his mother was Philip IV’s daughter Where exactly does the Black Death appear to have originated?
first great popular rebellion in English history.
1/2 of the population died What do the works of Boccaccio, Chaucer, and de Pisan all demonstrate?
The series of pageant plays performed at York were motivated by devotion but also by what other factor?
the desire of the guilds to display their wares in the plays. Petrarch believed that the “Dark Ages” were not the pagan past, but the Middle Ages, the time that separated him from which earlier era? Direct communication with the classics
Monastic Orders of the Middle Ages
It was the desire to live a spiritual life free of the distractions of the world that gave rise to the monastic orders of the Middle Ages in the first place. Men and women who accepted religious vows were looking for a purity of experience that they couldn’t find in their everyday lives as laypeople. One of the most inspiring figures for them wasJesus Christ, who owned nothing and dedicated his energy to serving others, expressing a vision of community consciousness and self-denial that was in direct opposition to the human tendency toward self-interest and self-promotion.
- Thesupermat is a term used to describe a person who is exceptionally gifted in a certain field (CC BY-SA) According to the biblical Book of Acts, Christ’s apostles followed his example and served as a model for later followers of the faith.
- 251-356 CE), who was renowned as ‘The Father of All Monks’, among other epithets.
- The notion of monasticism was introduced to medieval Europe through this work and others that followed it.
Paul of Thebes was an Egyptian Christian who escaped his home in order to avoid persecution and took up residence in a cave near the Red Sea, where he remained for the rest of his life. His first difficulties at home stemmed from an inheritance he was scheduled to receive, which his brother-in-law attempted to seize by publicly exposing Paul as a Christian to the authorities, prompting Paul to flee. Paul discovered that isolation brought him closer to God, and he was able to let go of his attachments to his past life in order to pursue a new one with only the Divine as his companion in the process.
- He committed himself to a new way of life.
- Anthony traveled to Paul’s cave in 342 CE after learning of his whereabouts.
- The next time Anthony returned, Paul had died, and Anthony had been given his only clothing, a hand-stitched tunic of leaves, which had become his sole property.
- Because of Saint Anthony’s piety, other people became interested in learning from him, and he ultimately agreed to their requests and emerged from his six-year solitary confinement.
- In 313 CE, Constantine the Great (reigned 272-337 CE) established Christianity as a legitimate religion.
Although a Christian did not have to risk physical death to demonstrate his or her commitment after Christianity was made the official state religion of Rome, the example of people such as Paul of Thebes and Anthony of Egypt was quite compelling: one could die to the world and thus draw closer to God.
- 340 CE, Athanasius of Alexandria journeyed to Rome, carrying with him two of Anthony’s pupils as well as his biography of the saint; as a result, monasticism was brought to Europe for the first time.
- Do you enjoy history?
- In Upper Egypt, Saint Pachomius (c.
- He lived on an island in the Mediterranean Sea, and his precepts were followed by others.
- 270 – c.
- In the same way that Saint Anthony and other early hermits like him are referred to as ‘Desert Fathers,’ so are other early monastic communities that have been influenced by their example, she is known as a ‘Desert Mother.’ John Cassian (c.
360 – c. 430 CE) founded a monastery in Gaul, which served as an inspiration for others to follow in his footsteps.
Monasteries in Europe
Paul of Thebes was an Egyptian Christian who escaped his country in order to avoid persecution and took up residence in a cave near the Red Sea, where he died in a battle against the Roman Empire. Initially, his problems at home stemmed from an inheritance that he was due to receive, which his brother-in-law attempted to obtain by falsely accusing Paul of being a Christian in front of the authorities. Because of his experience with solitude, Paul was able to grow closer to God and to let go of his attachments to his previous life in order to pursue a new one with just the Divine as his companion.
Then he resigned from his work, sold all of his belongings, and moved to the desert to live alone.
They shared a meal together.
During the Early Middle Ages, monasteries already followed fundamental norms and standards that had been established by Anthony’s pupils and other Desert Fathers.
These early believers were taught the lonely life of themonachos– those who live apart from the rest of society– which stems from the Greek mono (‘one’) and serves as the foundation for our English word’monk.’ Following the organization of the monks, Anthony withdrew into solitude once more, where he remained until his death in 1204.
Although a Christian did not have to risk physical death to demonstrate his or her commitment after Christianity was made the official state religion of Rome, the example of people such as Paul of Thebes and Anthony of Egypt was quite compelling: one could die to the world in order to draw nearer to God.
- 340 CE, taking with him two of Anthony’s students as well as his biography of the saint.
- Enjoy learning about the past?
- Pachomius (c.
- His precepts were followed by others, and he was considered a pioneer in the development of cenobitic monasticism (‘cenobitic’ meaning a society that follows set norms).
- 270 – c.
- Saint Anthony and other early hermits, whose example influenced subsequent monastic groups, are referred to as ‘Desert Fathers,’ and she is referred to be a “Desert Mother” in the same way.
A monastery in Gaul was founded by John Cassian (about 360 CE – around 430 CE), who inspired others to do the same.
The Different Orders
The growth and development of monasticism led to the formation of various orders, each of which addressed what they considered to be the most pressing issues of the day, a specific demographic of the population they felt called to serve, or a unique way of honoring God that did not quite fit with the practices of other orders. All of these places of worship revered the Virgin Mary, Mother of God, to varying degrees, but each had a distinct focus. The most well-known cenobitic orders are as follows:
The Benedictines were the religious order formed by Saint Benedict around the year 529 CE, while it is still questioned whether he ever meant to found an order and how he intended his instructions to be applied. In 580 CE, the Benedictine Abbey of Monte Cassino was ravaged by the Lombards, and the monks fled to Rome, carrying Benedict’s rules with them, which is how they came to be so extensively distributed across the medieval world. In honor of the color of their habits (robes), they were frequently known to as the Black Monks.
The Benedictine Abbey of Monte CassinoCapitu (or Marcela) is located in the town of Monte Cassino (CC BY-NC-SA) A reform order of Benedictines created in France at the Abbey of Cluny in 910 CE, the Cluniacs were known as the “Cluniacs.” The Cluniac Reforms were instituted in reaction to what was perceived to be an excessive amount of involvement by nobles in the life of monks.
- However, many lords then interjected themselves into the life of the monks and interfered with their daily activities.
- Consequently, many great works of art were created and preserved as a result of their emphasis on art as a method of worshipping God.
- Founded in 1098 CE at Citeaux Abbey in France by Benedictines who supported a return to the period of Saint Benedict as well as a life of austerity, the Cistercians became known as the Cistercian Order.
- Their concentration on simplicity in all things gave rise to a style of building known as CistercianArchitecture, which avoids adornment in favor of modest lines and shape, and which is being practiced today.
- 1153 CE) was a major champion for simplicity in worship and daily life, and he was the most famous Cistercian saint.
- The Carthusians were a religious order that emphasized the importance of stillness and contemplation.
- Certain days of the week were designated for community walks, during which members were permitted to freely converse with one another; nevertheless, for the most part, the monks were required to live in silence.
1030-1101 CE), the order has welcomed monks and nuns from all over the world.
614-680 CE) at Whitby Abbey inBritain, in which men and women lived separately but worshipped together in the same place.
The Premonstratensians were a religious order founded at Premontre, France, around 1120 CE by Norbert of Xanten (l.
1075-1134 CE), who was a descendant of Norbert of Xanten.
Bernard of Clairvaux was a companion of Premonstratensians Norbert of Xanten, and the Premonstratensians’ habits and architecture are very similar to those of the Cistercians.
Despite the fact that they barred women from becoming members throughout the Late Middle Ages (c.
In 1198 CE, Saint John of Matha created a religious order that would become known as The Trinitarians (also known as the Order of The Most Holy Trinity and the Order of the Captives) (l.
Initially, their principal duty was to ransom Christians who had been captured by Muslims during the Crusades or through pirate activity.
When it came to their communities, the Trinitarians were always very active, pushing education as a sort of religious devotion in their own right.
The existence of mendicants (beggars), in addition to monastic orders based on a monastery, was evidenced by the fact that their members lived lives of abject poverty, transience, and reliance on the charity of strangers. The Franciscans (established by Saint Francis of Assisi in 1209 CE) and the Dominicans are the two most well-known mendicant orders in the world (founded by Saint Dominic in 1216 CE). In order to stress devotion and service to others, the Franciscans lived a life of simplicity that was modeled after Jesus’ mission and that of his apostles.
- The Beguines were an unofficial order that arose in France in the 12th century CE and was composed exclusively of lay women who felt called to serve God and their neighbors.
- The Beghards were the name given to their masculine counterparts.
- It was possible for women to leave whenever they wished and return to their previous lives.
- Beguinage Charles Hutchins is an American author and poet (CC BY) There were also military orders that merged religious piety with martial prowess and fighting to form a cohesive whole.
- To provide care for those who were injured, sick, or disabled in Jerusalem, The Hospitallers (also known as the Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem) were founded by The Blessed Gerard (l.
- 1040-1120 CE) near the end of the First Crusade (c.
- Following the crusade, the organization shifted its concentration to the care of pilgrims traveling to the Holy Land, and it eventually evolved into a military branch of the Church based on the Greek island of Rhodes.
- 1070-1136 CE) and Bernard of Clairvaux, who collaborated on the writing of The Latin Rule, which described the proper conduct of a Christian knight.
- In 1312 CE, Philip IV of France (r.
- The Knights’ Hall, also known as the Krak des Chevaliers, is a historical building in Paris.
- They created hospitals and provided medical treatment for the ill, while simultaneously serving as a military contingent based in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem, and providing support to the local government.
They gained in prominence, grabbing estates for their own purposes throughout Eastern Europe, bringing them into confrontation with the ruling elite. They were eventually defeated. Despite this, they were able to not only survive but also prosper until the nineteenth century CE.
ImportanceLegacy of Monastic Orders
The existence of mendicants (beggars), in addition to monastic orders based on a monastery, was evidenced by the fact that their members lived lives of abject poverty, transience, and reliance on the generosity of others. The Franciscans (established in 1209 CE by Saint Francis of Assisi) and the Dominicans are the two most well-known mendicant orders (founded by Saint Dominic in 1216 CE). Because of their commitment to simplicity, the Franciscans stressed devotion and service to others, in the manner of Jesus’ mission and that of his apostles.
- The Beguines were an unofficial order that developed in France in the 12th century CE and was composed entirely of lay women who felt called to serve God and their neighbors.
- In contrast to the Beghards, the Beghards were a group of men.
- Women were free to leave and return to their previous life anytime they choose.
- Beguinage Charles Hutchins is a writer who lives in Los Angeles (CC BY) Aside from the religious orders, there were military orders that coupled piety with martial prowess and battle.
- As the First Crusade came to an end (c.
- Later on, the institution grew more focused on providing care for pilgrims traveling to the Holy Land and, finally, it evolved into a military branch of the Church based on the Greek island of Rhodes, which it still operates today.
- 1070-1136 CE) and Bernard of Clairvaux, who collaborated on The Latin Rule, which described the proper behavior expected of a Christian knight.
- In 1312 CE, Philip IV of France (r.
- The Knights’ Hall, also known as the Krak des Chevaliers, is located in the heart of Paris.
- They created hospitals and provided medical treatment for the ill, while simultaneously serving as a military detachment based in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem, and providing support to the Israeli forces.
They gained in strength, taking areas for their own purposes throughout Eastern Europe, putting them at odds with the ruling elite. They were eventually defeated. The people were able to thrive and prosper until the nineteenth century CE, despite the obstacles they encountered.
St. Francis of Assisi – Francis’s vision and the stigmata of the Crucified
It was during the Christmas season in 1223 that Francis took part in a significant ritual in which he commemorated Jesus’ birth by reconstructing the manger of Bethlehemmat, which was located in the town of Greccio in Italy. This celebration reflected his dedication to the person Jesus, a commitment that would be repaid in the most spectacular way the following year, when he was crucified. On August 15, 1224, Francis journeyed to the mountain retreat of La Verna, near Assisi, to commemorate the feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary (August 15) and prepare for St.
Francis was accompanied by his brother, Giuseppe, who accompanied Francis on his journey.
On the morning of September 14, during his morning prayer, he noticed a figure approaching him from the skies, which he identified as Christ the Exaltation of the Cross.
Bonaventure, who served as the Franciscans’ minister general from 1257 to 1274 and was a leading thinker of the 13th century, “As it stood above him, he saw that it was both a man and yet a Seraph with six wings; his arms were extended and his feet conjoined, and his body was fixed to a cross.” Wings covered his entire body; two were elevated over his head, two were stretched as if in flight, and two covered his entire body.
- Francis was greeted with a gentle grin from the face, which was above all earthly beautification.
- After much deliberation about what this vision may imply, he came to the conclusion that, by God’s providence, he would be made like the crucified Christ, not by physical martyrdom, but through conformity of mind and heart.
- Francis took great care throughout the rest of his life to keep the stigmata hidden from others (marks resembling the wounds on the crucified body of Jesus Christ).
- Francis’ confessor and personal friend, Brother Leo, who later wrote a written account of the incident, stated that Francis appeared to have just been brought down from the cross when he died.
- Following fruitless medical treatment in Siena, he was sent to Assisi, where he died in the Porziuncola after a brief stay there.
- Francis was canonized by Pope Gregory IX on July 15, 1228, bringing an unusual amount of time to a close to a process that had begun months before.
Ignatius Charles Brady was a Catholic priest who lived in the nineteenth century. Those in charge of editing the Encyclopaedia Britannica
History 101 Chapter 8-9
Question The answerWater mill was a primary source of mechanical power in medieval Europe after 1050, and it was used to grind grain, crush paper pulp, and press oil, among other things. question The increase in average temperature throughout the medieval period, which allowed for a longer growing season, was one element that led to the growth in agricultural productivity during that period.question While serfs were treated as if they were slaves in sections of medieval Europe, there was one significant exception: In order to be sold, the serfs’ ancient lands had to be sold with them.
question Fields were rotated over a cycle throughout the upper Middle Ages, which resulted in an increase in overall agricultural yield of 50-67 percent.
question The most dramatic advancements in long-distance commerce occurred during the eleventh century in the following areas:question Despite the fact that moneylending was a significant component in the success of early Italian mercantile activity: response The practice was denounced as usurious by the Christian churches of the western world.
- question The term feudal is derived from the Latin feudum, which means “response” in English.
- Individuals at each level of feudal society had personal relationships with one another.
- King Henry IV embarrassed himself in front of Pope Gregory VIIquestion Over the course of European history, the tenth century has been associated with unsuccessful kingship.
- The monastic reform movement that began at Cluny in Burgundy was unusual in that it provided a solution to the question of what was wrong with the church.
- question A new form of monastery was established at:question, which was the site of the first successful attempt to restore the spiritual power to the Latin church.
Such remnants raise the question: It was in 1059 that Pope Nicholas II published a new decree on papal elections, which delegated the authority to elect future popes to the following institutions: Question about the College of Cardinals In the eleventh century, the fight for supremacy in Central Europe was primarily a contest between two groups of people: question The relevance of the investiture conflict was that it provided an opportunity to: Formally, if not in reality, European politics distinguished between the “church” and the “state.” question The “solution” was the name given to the settlement that brought the investiture struggle to a close.
Question on the Concordat of the Worms When the city of Jerusalem was seized by the:questionable in 1071, relations between Muslims and Christians in the region Christians identify to as the holy territories were severely strained.
A group of strongly equipped knights is to be sent against a Turkish cavalry force that is just poorly armored.
What was it that Pope Urban II did not want to accomplish during the first crusade?
question According to European tradition, the Muslim philosopher Averroès endeavored to remedy a perceived difficulty in the philosophy of:answer Conciliating the Greek concept of individual freedom in the world with the Christian belief that God determines all that happens in the world is a difficult subject.
- Muslims were not the only ones who benefited from the literary universe that Islam produced.
- The creation of a new political framework known as the:question system occurred throughout the late Middle Ages.
- question King John signed the Magna Carta, which is the correct answer.
- question Question: Under the reign of _, the French kingdom of the Capetians has shrunk considerably, and he has lost both his wife and his territory to the English King.
- question Innocent III was the most effective pope throughout the High Middle Ages since he did the following: The church was successful in disciplining rulers and heretics, as well as defining the core dogmas of the church.
- Which Christian figure became the focal point of a rapidly spreading “cult” in the twelfth century and is the inspiration for the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, among other places?
- Apostolic poverty and emulation of Christ’s life are two characteristics of the apostles.
question The seven liberal arts disciplines that colleges in Europe created as part of their curriculum were comprised of the following: response Question about trivium and quadrivium By 1200, the majority of males who joined schools were: response Neither were they members of the clergy, nor were they ever meant to be.
question Answer: Modern colleges may trace their origins all the way back to the: Abelard at the Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Parisquestion When medieval students were admitted to university, they often studied the liberal arts, which meant they learned how to: Latin grammar, rhetoric, and logic are studied at a higher level.
question This was the most characteristic kind of literature prevalent during the upper Middle Ages, and it was the:questionable literature.
The following are the fundamental characteristics of the Romanesque architectural style:answer Rounded arches, large stone walls, and tiny windows are some of the architectural features.
Saint Francis Of Assisi
Assisi, Italy (1182 a.d.) Portiuncula, Italy, on October 3, 1226 The Franciscan Order was founded by St. Francis of Assisi. “Praise be to You, my Lord, together with all of Your creatures, particularly Sir Brother Sun, who is the day through which You provide us with illumination. And he is lovely and dazzling with tremendous brilliance, and he bears the likeness of You, Most High, in every way.” —St. Francis of Assisi, “Canticle of Brother Sun and Sister Moon of St. Francis of Assisi,” a poem written in the fifth century.
- Saint percent 20Prayers is the name of the prayer group.
- He is most known for founding the Franciscans, a prominent religious order (organization) that carries his name.
- He was untrained and was not even a priest when he embarked on his journey to preach in Italy’s countryside in the early thirteenth century.
- In 1210, Francis and his followers won the approval and acceptance of Pope Innocent III, who declared them to be legitimate (see entry).
- During the Fifth Crusade (1218–21), he sought to broker a ceasefire between struggling Christians and Muslims by crossing enemy lines to talk with the head of the Egyptian army, Sultan al-Malik al-Kamil (see entry).
- Despite the fact that he was beloved by many, Francis was also feared by many who were skeptical of his emphasis on simplicity.
Five Pillars of Islam
Francis of Assisi attempted to convert Sultan al-Kamil to Christianity, but the sultan was equally interested in converting the Christian to Islam, which he saw as a threat to his own religion of Christianity. As a matter of fact, during the Crusades, one method through which prisoners may avoid execution was to convert to the faith of their captors. The fundamental tenets or principles of Islam, referred to as the Five Pillars of Islam, are divided into five categories. First and foremost, a Muslim must declare ashahadah, which is a declaration of faith in Allah, the Muslim God, and in Muhammad, who is recognized as Allah’s prophet.
- Because there are no priests in the Islamic faith, these prayers serve as a direct line of communication between the believer and God.
- These prayers, which are recited in Arabic, are taken from the Muslim holy book, the Qur’an, which is also known in English as the Koran.
- God is a magnificent being.
- I certify that, except from God, there is no one deserving of reverence.
- I certify that Muhammad is the divine messenger sent by Allah.
- Come to the prayer vigil!
- Come on, you can do it!
God is a wonderful being!
Except for God, there is no one worthy of adoration.
In order to teach people that riches is not the most important thing in life, this involves donating a portion of one’s earnings to charitable organizations.
In addition to thehajj, which is a pilgrimage or spiritual trip to the Muslim holy city of Mecca for those who are physically able to do so, the sixth and final pillar is zakat.
Ironically, many of these same beliefs—praying, fasting, and donating a portion of one’s wealth—were exactly what Saint Francis was preaching when he died in 1226.
There was (and continues to be) much in agreement between the Christians and Muslims who battled one other during the Crusades in terms of their fundamental convictions about their respective religions.
From Riches to Rags
It was Francis of Assisi’s life that flipped the romanticized story of “rags to riches” on its head. Francis, who was born Giovanni Bernardone, gave up his family’s money in order to carry out what he believed to be God’s purpose. His renown extended far and wide throughout his lifetime, and he is still one of the most well-loved and well-known saints in Catholic history, having inspired hundreds of publications and a number of film pictures during his lifetime. Giovanni’s father, Pietro Bernardone, was one of the wealthiest persons in the city of Assisi, which is located in central Italy and where he was born in 1182.
- During the birth of his first son, the father, a textile merchant traveling on business in France, didn’t care for the name his wife had selected for him, which was John the Baptist, a reference to the historical figure.
- As a memory of Pietro’s travel to France at the time of the boy’s birth, he gave him the moniker “Francesco” (which means “Francis” in English), which means “Francis” in Italian.
- He was more concerned with having a good time than he was with learning.
- The little child also learnt Latin, which was the language used in colleges and churches throughout his time in Europe.
- He was a pleasant young guy who had many friends and collected around him a similarly fun-loving throng, which consisted primarily of aristocrats and children of the affluent, who liked a good party and singing together.
- His ambitions included being a knight, or professional soldier, and riding a good horse, as well as being raised to the ranks of the aristocracy, as his family was not aristocratic despite their affluence.
- He aspired to the position of “Sir Francis.” In 1202, when Assisi and its rival city, Perugia, went to war, he got his chance to achieve military renown, which he did.
- He was fortunate to have survived, as the fight had wiped off the majority of the Assisi force on the battlefield.
- Nonetheless, his imprisonment was not a pleasant experience, as he was chained to a dungeon wall for a period of one year.
- His ambition to become a knight had not faded away when he was eventually able to recuperate from his injuries.
The king of the empire considered himself to be the leader of Europe, while the pope considered himself to be in the same position. This rivalry had long been a source of contention, and Francis was about to become a participant in it as well.
A Dream Changes Francis’s Life
In a dream, Francis, who had only been absent from Assisi for a single day, saw a vision that forever altered the course of his life. While resting at an inn in the town of Spoleto, he had a dream in which God warned him that the military life was not the best path for him to take in order to have a happy life with his family. It is preferable for him to serve the Lord rather than a military leader. Francis returned to Assisi in a condition of disarray and disorientation. With nothing to do, he began visiting the many churches across the city and praying.
- He used money from his father’s company to pay for the repairs to his father’s church.
- Then he stripped off all of the garments his father had given him, leaving him with only a plain shirt on his back and shoulders.
- Francis pledged himself to a life of poverty and began begging for food and shelter as soon as he arrived.
- While he proceeded to restore historic churches, the significance of the message he had heard became immediately evident to him one day while attending Mass (a Catholic church service) at a local parish.
- Francis followed the actual language of the Bible and went forth into the world to share the message of God and Jesus Christ in a straightforward and straightforward manner.
- His message was straightforward, heralding the happiness that could be found in Christianity if only one had faith.
- Francis had never attended a university or pursued a degree in theology (religious faith and practice).
- He, on the other hand, desired formal recognition for his organization.
- Because he resembled a tramp when he appeared before Innocent III, Francis was almost expelled from the council.
- In his dream that night, the Pope saw himself as a small man dressed in rags, similar to Francis, who rescued his cathedral from collapsing.
- Francis’ example inspired people not only to join his Franciscan order, but also to found other ones in their own communities.
It was a young woman named Clare who was Francis’s devout disciple when he met her and was influenced by her. She eventually went on to found the women’s religious order known as the Poor Clares.
Taking the Message to the “Heathens”
As membership in his new order grew throughout Italy, including the cities of Perugia, Pisa, and Florence, Francis came to the conclusion that he wished to extend his message to the rest of the world, specifically to Muslims, by preaching the Bible to them. As a result of severe weather, he was forced to return to Italy in 1212, having set sail for the Holy Land in the previous year. In 1214, he embarked on a mission to preach to the Muslim Moors who were living in Spain. In the end, he was unsuccessful, since sickness forced him to cut short his tour and return to his home country of Italy.
- Crusader armies were attempting to invade Muslim strongholds in Egypt in 1219 when this occurred.
- In this battle, the two forces were battling for possession of the city of Damietta, which was located at the mouth of the Nile River and prevented the Crusaders from continuing their trek northward toward Cairo, their final destination.
- A battle was raging outside the city walls between the Egyptian sultan, or commander, and his men, while the Crusaders were fighting them from within their own camp.
- Francis landed at the Crusader camp in August of 1219, according to legend.
- Powell writes in his book Anatomy of a Crusade, 1213–1221, that the crusade was “not intended to encourage the dejected Christian army or to combat the pagan, rather it was intended to bring peace.” Francis had a vision that foretold the Crusaders’ downfall in a forthcoming battle.
- It was foretold in his sermon to the troops that they would be defeated.
- Following this setback, Sultan al-Kamil sought a truce, and it was at this point that Pope Francis recognized a chance to talk with Muslims about their concerns.
- He was transported before the sultan, where he endeavored to persuade him of the veracity of Christian doctrine.
- Rather, Al-Kamil was charmed by Francis’s honesty and bravery and lavished him with presents before transporting him securely back to the crusader camp in the surrounding countryside.
For reasons outlined by Powell, this marked a watershed moment in the order’s “long-term commitment” to missions among Moslems, particularly the preservation of the Holy Sites.
Francis Returns to Italy
Francis’ final years were spent in Italy, where his order had grown to include thousands of new adherents by the time he died. Previously, his charisma had held the group together, but now they needed a set of guidelines to follow. Francis stipulated that the basic rule of the order be to live in poverty, and this was upheld by the congregation. He did not seek to eradicate poverty, but rather to elevate it to a sacred status. The residences of the order were required to be simple, and the friars, as the members were known, were only required to wear a robe tied with a rope.
During his visit to Rome in 1223, he presented the new rule of the order to the Pope, Honorius III; however, part of the focus on simplicity was omitted out of the final text that was accepted by the Pope.
More than a thousand years later, the Franciscans would be known less as happy friars wandering around the countryside preaching God’s love and more as an order associated with learning, whose members would go on to become professors at some of the world’s most prestigious universities throughout Europe during the Middle Ages.
- His appearance is claimed to have occurred when he was praying in a mountain chapel north of the city, during which he displayed evidence of the stigmata, the wounds that Christ endured on the cross.
- Throughout the rest of his life, Francis would be haunted by these scars.
- Francis’s health was deteriorating rapidly.
- He died at Assisi in 1226 and was buried there the following year.
- Despite the passage of time, Assisi continues to draw significant numbers of visitors who wish to see the residence of this famous saint, who was recognized for his love of life and nature, as well as his commitment to a simple life of peace and love.
For More Information
Morris Bishop is the author of this work. Saint Francis of Assisi is a saint from the Italian city of Assisi. Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1974. Julien Green is the author of this work. This book is about the life and times of Francis of Assisi, also known as the “Father of the Church.” Harper & Row Publishers, San Francisco, 1987. Adrian’s house is on the market. Francis of Assisi: A Revolutionary Life is a biography of Francis of Assisi. HiddenSpring Publishing Company, Mahwah, New Jersey, 2001.
Powell, James M., et al. The Crusades: Anatomy of a Campaign, 1213–1221. The University of Pennsylvania Press published this book in 1986. Donald, you’re a jerk. The Life of Saint Francis of Assisi, also known as the “Reluctant Saint.” Viking Compass Publishing Company, New York, 2002.
“Canticle of Brother Sun and Sister Moon of St. Francis of Assisi.” “Canticle of Brother Sun and Sister Moon of St. Francis of Assisi.” Catholic Online is a website dedicated to promoting the Catholic faith. Saint percent of 20Prayers (name=Saint percent of 20Prayers) (Accessed on the 21st of July, 2004.) “Fifth Crusade,” as the name suggests. The ORB (On-line Reference Book for Medieval Studies) is an online resource for medieval studies (accessed on July 21, 2004). ‘St. Francis of Assisi,’ according to Catholic Online (accessed on July 21, 2004).
Francis of Assisi,’ according to New Advent (published on July 21, 2004).
Francis’s Testament, as found on the Internet Medieval Sourcebook (accessed July 21, 2004).