Who Designed The Abbey Of Saint-denis’s Renovation And Thus Began The Gothic Style

quiz 11-13 hum 101 – Litchapter.com

It is evident that the Sutton Hoo burial ceremony was not Christian, because it included cremation.
What advantages did feudalism offer the fiefs? Use of land and protection
Which literary work describes a scene similar to the Sutton Hoo discovery? Beowulf
The monsters in Beowulf seem to be metaphors for fate and the destructive forces of nature
Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne the first Holy Roman Emperor for Christianizing the people of his vast empire.
Charlemagne insisted upon a Christian education for his people primarily to enable them to read aloud and sing in church.
What architectural feature especially distinguishes a Romanesque church? barrel vaults
The Abbey Church of Sainte-Foy was a popular pilgrimage destination, because it contained the relics of a martyred child who refused to worship pagan gods.
Romanesque churches’ portals were of special importance, because they defined the boundary between secular and sacred space.
Why was courtly love poetry written in the common language of everyday life instead of Latin? A greater number of people would be able to enjoy it.
Who designed the Abbey of Saint-Denis’s renovation and thus began the Gothic style? Abbot Suger
A large number of French cathedrals were called Notre Dame (“Our Lady”), because they were dedicated to the Virgin Mary, who was regarded as the “Queen of Heaven.”
What survived Chartres Cathedral’s devastating fire of 1194? Mary’s tunic and a window portraying her
The Tree of Jesse is a common stained-glass motif, because it establishes Mary’s royal lineage from King David.
Gothic cathedrals included flying buttresses to help spread the weight of the vaults.
Where was the first university founded? Bologna, Italy
The popular poem Roman de la Rose is based upon the relationship between Peter Abelard and Héloïse
While on a crusade in Constantinople, what relic did Louis IX purchase to display at Sainte- Chapelle? Christ’s crown of thorns
Giovanni Pisano sculpted his Mary, Sister of Moses leaning forward to allow viewers below to see her face.
Select the statement that is INCORRECT about private family patronage in Italy: Private families tended to favor stained glass over fresco to decorate their chapels.
Both Siena and Florence are located in the region of Tuscany.
Before 1355, the most powerful guild in Siena was that of the merchants
Florence’s wealth based largely on textile production
Who in Florence was eligible to serve in the government? only guild members
How does Duccio di Buoninsegna’s Maestá break from Byzantine portrayals of Mary and the Christ Child? Mary’s body has substance, and the Christ Child resembles an actual baby.
For what purpose did the Scrovegni family build and then hire Giotto to decorate the Arena Chapel in Padua? To atone for their flagrant usury
Giotto’s Arena Chapel frescoes include the first instance since antiquity of the depiction of people from behind.
In the Inferno, Dante places Judas, Brutus, and Cassius in the lowest level of his hell, because they were traitors.
In the Decameron, Boccaccio introduces into Western literature the literary convention of social realism.
Chaucer wrote his Canterbury Tales in Middle English.

Suger – Wikipedia

This article is about the abbot of a French monastery. Eduardo Suger is a Guatemalan physicist who was born in the United States. Not to be confused with the sugary substance. Saint-Suger Denis’s shown on a medieval window Suger (French:; Latin: Sugerus; c.1081 – 13 January 1151) was a French abbot, politician, and historian who lived from 1081 to 1151 in France. He was one of the early sponsors of Gothic architecture, and he is largely regarded as having popularized the style in the nineteenth century.


The roots of Suger’s family remain unclear. Several times in his writings, he implies that he comes from a lowly background, yet this may simply be a tradition of autobiographical writing that he has fallen into. Suger was appointed as anoblate to theabbey of St. Denis in 1091, when he was eleven years old, and there he began his formal education. He received his training in the priory of Saint-Denis de l’Estrée, where he first met the future king of France, Louis VI. Suger may have attended another school during this time period, maybe one affiliated with the monastery of Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire.

  • In the next year, he was appointed provost ofBernevalinNormandy, and in 1109, he was appointed provost ofToury.
  • Suger was appointed abbot of St-Denis upon his return from Maguelonne.
  • The future king, Louis VII, invited him to accompany him to Aquitaine on the occasion of that prince’s marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine in 1137.
  • He was vehemently opposed to the king’s divorce, despite the fact that he had personally recommended the marriage.
  • Suger was a close friend and advisor to both Louis VI and Louis VII throughout their reigns.
  • He left his abbey, which had a substantial amount of property and had been enriched and enhanced by the construction of a new church in the embryonic Gothic style when he died.
  • Later historians have challenged Panofsky’s assertion that the theology of Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite affected the architectural style of the monastery of St.
  • Similar to this, the notion made by 19th century French authors that Suger was the “designer” of St Denis (and hence the “creator” of Gothic architecture) has been almost fully disproved by modern architectural historians.

His reputation is more accurately described as that of an adventurous and inventive patron who supported the work of an innovative (but as yet unidentified) master mason. The National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. presently has an achalice that was formerly in Suger’s possession.

Contribution to art

It was about 1137 when Abbot Suger, a close friend and confidant of the French Kings Louis VI and Louis VII, made the decision to restore the greatChurch of Saint-Denis, which served as the burial church for the monarchs. In the beginning, Suger focused on the west front, re-creating the originalCarolingianfaçade with its single door. He intended for the façade of Saint-Denis to be an echo of the RomanArch of Constantine, with its three-part division and three massive entrances to alleviate the problem of congestion that existed at the time.

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When the west front was completed in 1140, Abbot Suger went on to the renovation of the eastern end, leaving the Carolingian nave in its current state of repair.

His masons used a variety of new features that had developed or had been introduced into Romanesque architecture to achieve his goals, including the pointed arch, the ribbed vault, the ambulatory with radiating chapels, the clustered columns supporting ribs springing in different directions, and theflying buttresses, which enabled the insertion of largeclerestorywindows.

As a result, the Abbey of Saint-Denis served as a model for subsequent construction across the royal dominion of northern France.

The original nave of Saint-Denis was rebuilt in the Gothic style a hundred years later, obtaining two remarkable rose windows in its transepts as a result of the restoration.

He commissioned a number of liturgical items, including a gilt eagle, the Eleanor of Aquitaine vase, the King Roger decanter, a gold chalice, and a sardonyx ewer, among others.


Suger rose to become the preeminent historian of his generation. A panegyric on Louis VI (Vita Ludovici regis) was written by him, and he helped in the compilation of the probably more objective biography of Louis VII (Historia gloriosi regis Ludovici). St Denis has been improved by him, and he recounts the riches of the church, as well as giving an account of the reconstruction process in hisLiber de rebus in administratione sua gestis and its supplementLibellus de consecratione ecclesiae S.

Suger’s books were instrumental in instilling a love of history in the monks of St Denis, which resulted in the creation of a lengthy succession of quasi-official chronicles.

References and sources


  1. See Panofsky, Suger, and St Denis, Peter Kidson, Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol. 50, (1987), pp. 1–17 for a summary of the ‘arguments against’ Panofsky’s point of view
  2. Artistic Change at St Denis: Abbot Suger’s Program and the Early Twelfth Century Controversy Over Art, Princeton University Press, 1990
  3. Conrad Rudolph, “Artistic Change at St Denis: Abbot Suger’s Program and the Early Twelfth Century Controversy Over Art,” Princeton University Press, 1990
  4. In Kibler et al. (eds. ), Medieval France: An Encyclopedia (New York: Routledge, 1995), they write: When the new rear section is connected to the existing front section, the church is illuminated in the center. For brilliant is that which is vividly associated with the bright and which is pervaded by the new light, and the new light is bright. The noble effort shines with brilliance. While it was accomplished, I, Suger, who was the commander, expanded it throughout our time. Abbot Suger: On What Was Done During His Administrationc.1144–8, Chap XXVIII
  5. Abbot Suger: On What Was Done During His Administrationc.1144–8, Chap XXVIII
  6. Theorist Erwin Panofsky claimed that Suger was inspired to create a physical representation of the Heavenly Jerusalem
  7. However, on the basis of Suger’s own writings, more recent art historians have called into question whether Suger had any goals higher than aesthetic pleasure
  8. Honor, H. and J. Fleming, (2009)A World History of Art. 7th edn. London: Laurence King Publishing, p. 376.ISBN9781856695848
  9. Honor, H. Wim Swaan’s The Gothic Cathedral
  10. Anne D. Hedeman’s “The Royal Image: Illustrations of the Grandes Chroniques de France, 1274–1422,” Berkeley and Los Angeles, both published by University of California Press. 3 – 6 in the Introduction to the University of California Press’s 1991 edition of Oxford
  • Hugh Chisholm is the editor of this book (1911). “Suger.” Encyclopaedia Britannica, 26th edition (11th ed.). “Suger,” The Middle Ages, A Concise Encyclopedia, Cambridge University Press, p. 48
  • “Suger,” The Middle Ages, A Concise Encyclopedia, Cambridge University Press, p. 48
  • 1989 (ISBN0-500-27645-5)
  • Abbot Suger of St. Denis: Church and State in Early Twelfth-Century France, edited by H.R. Loyn (ISBN0-500-27645-5). Lindy Grant, Grant & Company, Inc. In Essex, United Kingdom, Addison Wesley Longman Limited published The Gothic Cathedral: Origins of Gothic Architecturethe Medieval Concept of Order in 1998 (ISBN0-582-05150-9)
  • 2016 paperback edition (Third Edition), Otto Van Simson was an American author and poet who lived during the early twentieth century. The Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, published this book in 1988. (ISBN0-691-09959-6)
  • “Suger, Abbot of Saint-Denis”Encyclopedia of Aesthetics, edited by Michael Kelly, 2nd ed., 6 vols. (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2014), v.6, p. 78-79
  • “Suger, Abbot of Saint-Denis”Bolingen Series XLVIII. (ISBN0-691-09959-6)
  • “Suger,

See also

  • The Metropolitan Museum of Art published Abbé Suger and Saint-Denis: a symposium in 1986, with ISBN 9780870994081
  • Hunt, Patrick (29 January 2006), “Abbé Suger and a Medieval Theory of Light in Stained Glass: Lux, Lumen, Illumination”, Philolog, Stanford University, which was archived from the original on 17 March 2016
  • Gerson, Paula Lieber (1986), “Abbé Suger and Saint-Denis: Among the works of Abbot Suger of Saint-Denis that have been translated are: Suger (1992), The Deeds of Louis the Fat, translated by Richard Cusimano
  • John Moorhead, Washington, D.C.:Catholic University of America Press, ISBN0-8132-0758-4
  • Suger (1999), The Deeds of Louis the Fat, translated by Jean Dunbabin
  • Suger (2018), Selected Works of Abbot Suger of Saint-Denis
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Chapter 12: The Gothic Style: Faith and

Chapter 12: The Gothic Style: Faith and Knowledge in an Age of Inquiry (also known as “The Gothic Style”). Multiple-Choice Questions for Homework Questions a. Gothic churches were deemed to be overly gloomy; so, the name “Gothic,” as given to France’s new architecture, was initially a negative epithet. b. The Goths had annihilated the Classical heritage. It was widely believed that the French were a barbarous nation. d. The Visigoths were the forefathers of the French. 2. Who was responsible for the renovation of the Abbey of Saint-Denis, which marked the beginning of the Gothic style?

  1. In order to establish the new Gothic style, the following elements were used: a.
  2. Corinthian capitals; c.
  3. stone as the major building material.
  4. A vast number of French churches were known as Notre Dame (“Our Lady”) because they were dedicated to either a.
  5. France, personified as “our lady” in the Gothic style.
  6. a.
  7. John the Baptist’s skull, which was seized from Constantinople c.

The bones of a child who was murdered for refusing to serve pagan deities 6.

Abbot Suger’s preserved body and a window depicting him b.

The Gothic south spire and its lancets d.

Stained-glass programs were installed in Gothic cathedrals largely to: a.

remind the people of the French king’s reign.

connects nature to the heavenly realm; b.

reminds the people of Jesus’s suffering for their sins; and d.


allow for greater windows and entrances; b.

divert water away from the roof and walls; and d.

In ancient Greece, ancient Egypt, and the Romanesque period, organs were first used.


Because France had an overabundance of clergy, they were required to enter by papal edict.

The Church discontinued its financial support for the school.

The number of students enrolled in clerical courses was decreasing.

Chapter 12: The Gothic Style: Faith and Knowledge in an Age of Inquiry: The Techniques of a.

King David Peter Abelard founded his teaching on the methods of a.

King David Homework 3.

Aristotle; 5.

The connection between a.

Jesus and Mary Magdalene c.

Abbot Suger and Louis IX is the inspiration for the renowned poem Roman de la Rose.

Scholasticism attempted to bring about a synthesis between the themes of a.

Classical reason.

The quadrivium and the trivium are two different types of triadic relationships.

The distinction between the three persons of the Trinity and the oneness of God.

Salvation by faith and salvation by good works are two different things.

The existence of the Holy Spirit b.

The existence of Heaven and d.

The Radiant-style is number 18 on the list.

instill sentiments of subservience in all who visit it.


Visitor donations to the Church should be increased as a result of this.

What relic did Louis IX acquire while on crusade in Constantinople and bring back to Paris to display at Sainte-Chapelle?


used tax resources to convert Pairs into a New Jerusalem; and b.




moderate year-round climate and b.

European countries had the lowest rates of plague contraction.

In this chapter, you will learn about the Gothic style, which combines faith and knowledge in an age of inquiry.

The government was completely independent of any king’s authority.

Northern Europe had the highest average pay in the European Union.

The Radiant style might be seen in the following buildings in fifteenth-century Bruges: a.

Hospital c.

Treasury 23.

correct the appearance of her curling inward.




draw attention to the rivalry between the two religious orders.

It was necessary to demonstrate distance – both physically and spiritually – from the city’s opulent cathedral, as well as adequate space because property was less expensive further out from the city center.

Choose the statement concerning private family patronage in Italy that is not correct: a.

b. When it came to decorating their chapels, private families preferred to prefer stained glass over frescoes. c. Individuals and families made contributions to churches in the hope of receiving salvation. The private families that owned the chapels held their own mass services in their chapels.

Saint Denis Sculpture

Introduction: Rebuilt and enlarged approximately four times from the 7th through 13th centuries, the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis realized its unique status as pioneer in Gothic architecture under the innovative guidance of Abbot Suger(1122-1151). Suger’s memoirs, chronicling these renovations of the Abbey Church between 1137-1144, form one of the most important documents of the Middle Ages in providing a first-hand look at the transition from the Late Romanesque to Gothic architecture in France.

This lighter, skeletal design permitted increased elevation and freed the walls from a primary load-bearing capacity, allowing extensive use of stained glass windows in a higher, more spacious, and light-filled interior.

The rich sculptural art of the church includes both striking Biblical figures created during the Late Romanesque and Early Gothic era of Suger, and a notable series of Late Gothic tomb effigies of French rulers.[ Fig.1:The spacious double ambulatory ofSaint-Denis, enlarged by Abbot Suger with uniform ribbed vaulting ca.

  1. Denis and creation of the Abbey Church:According to a 9th century Carolingian legend, St.
  2. Various 5th-9th century legends say he was buried in a clandestine ceremony after his martyrdom near the Roman town ofCatolacus, about 11 km north of Paris.
  3. Denis referred to as the “Holy Martyrs” by Abbot Suger, may have been buried with him.In about AD 475, St.
  4. St.
  5. Denis, whose burial site had begun to attract many pilgrims.
  6. Abbot Fulrad substantially rebuilt the church in 750-775.
  7. On February 24, 754 Pope Stephen III consecrated Pepin the Short (714-768), at the abbey in the presence of his wife and sons, Charlemagne (the future Holy Roman Emperor) and Carloman.
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Unlike St.

The abbey had also gained an increasingly prominent position in France as a result of its close ties with the French monarchy.

Granted royal recognition by King Louis VI in 1109, this market supported the development of a town around the abbey (Bussmann 1980).

Exterior of Saint-Denis: The innovative architectural style of the west fa�ade at Saint-Denis (fig.2), built between 1135-1140, was borrowed from Norman churches such as St.

The two bays with two flanking towers and chapels in the upper stories were consecrated on July 9, 1140.

This involved three sculptured portals, three levels with different kinds of openings, and a crowning rose window flanked by two towers (only one was ever built at Saint-Denis).The entrances, with their free-standing jamb figures connecting the three portals to a visual and iconographic scheme, were much more complex than those of Romanesque church fa�ades.

The creation of a royal portal as well as the introduction of a statue, most likely Christ, on the trumeau or the central stone pillar of atwo-leaved portal had a powerful influence on later portal decorations.Surviving sculptural fragments include three heads in the Mus�e national du Moyen �ge (former Mus�e de Cluny; fig.3) as well as several original heads of apostles and kings from the Last Judgment (central) portal at the Mus�e du Louvre in Paris.

  1. These Old Testament figures not only represented early protagonists of Christendom, but also alluded to the divine rightof the French rulers, following inthe succession of biblical kings.
  2. Suger also started the tradition of employing craftsmen from outside of the �le de-France.
  3. For example, the head of a queen from the central portal, possibly the Queen of Sheba, shares stylistic parallels with a sculpture of Eve’s head at Autun Cathedral in Burgundy, attributed to the sculptor Giselbertus.
  4. In contrast, the jamb figures of the north portal (ca.

�tienne Cathedral in Toulouse (Languedoc), which have a similar posture with crossed legs, as well as decorative jeweled borders (Williamson 1995).The tympanum of the central portal, which closely resembles the earlier Romanesque style, was reserved for the dramatic theme of the Last Judgment, one of the most popular in Gothic cathedrals.

  1. The archivolts or decorated arch of the portal are filled with the twenty-four elders of the Apocalypse, and the doorposts with the Wise and Foolish Virgins – all to become standard themes in Gothic cathedrals.
  2. This portal also contains the original 12th century carvings of the Dove and the Lamb, as well as God and Christ.T he north portal’s tympanum was originally decorated with a mosaic ordered by Suger, which possibly depicted the Coronation of the Virgin (Williamson 1995).
  3. Suger’s mosaic at Saint-Denis, nevertheless, remained the only Gothic example in France.The north doorway now contains a 19th century relief of the Martyrdom of St.
  4. Here St.
  5. The south portal illustrates the Last Communion of St.
  6. A sculpture of St.
  7. Recovery of the sculptural head of Moses and a prophet (fig.3) from the south portal, now in the Mus�e national du Moyen �ge at the H�tel de Cluny, suggests that another scene might have once occupied this space.

Fig.3:Head of a prophet, from a column on the south portal of the west fa�ade at Saint Denis, AD 1137-1140 (photo: Athena Review).The portal of the north transept, known as thePorte des Valois(fig.4) after the destroyed tomb of the Valois dynasty, also contained a richness of sculpture, now preserved at the Louvre.

The sculptural program included thirty crowned figures in the voussoirs (truncated wedges making up the arch), framing the scene of the Martyrdom of Saint-Denis.

Denis, occupied the door embrasures.

In contrast to the statues of the royal portal, however, there is at Saint-Denis a much more delicate treatment of the flesh with narrow almond-shaped eyes and slender foreheads.Saint-Denis held several cloisters, at least one of which contained an interesting variety of Gothic art.

1751, has yielded the only remaining intact column sculpture of a king from Saint-Denis.

The close resemblance to the north transept statues, moreover, suggests that both belonged to the same workshop.

Other remains from Saint-Denis preserved at the Louvre include a fragment with the heads of three men carved with characteristic Gothic realism, and a capital decorated with interwoven foliage and fourharpies.

The former oculus (small circular window without tracery) on the west fa�ade served asa precursor of the later Gothic rose window, one of the great innovations inwestern architectural history.

In 1258, Notre-Dame of Paris replicated the beautiful design of Saint-Denis’ rose window, and incorporated the story of the Apocalypse in the eighty-six panels of stained glass in the upper chapel.

The upper story on the north side contains other innovative features such asdouble span flying buttresses (ca.

The more conservative apse (ca.

At the time of Suger’s death in 1151, the two ends of the church were still joined by 8th century construction.

References:Bony, J.

1997.Die Geburt der Gotik.

Rombach.Bu�mann, Klaus.

1980.Paris und die Ile de France.

K�ln, DuMont.Colboune, T.F. Morgan et al. 2003.Eyewitness Travel Guides: France.London, DK Publishing.Williamson, P. 1995.Gothic Sculpture.New Haven and London, Yale University Press.

This article appears on pages 30-32 of Vol.4 No.2 ofAthena Review.

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