- 1 Which of the following was an innovation of saint-denis?
- 2 What was an innovation of Saint-Denis?
- 3 What significant change took place in Abbey Church of Saintis?
- 4 What distinctively Gothic feature can be seen in the image below quizlet?
- 5 What is special about Amiens Cathedral?
- 5.1 What is the purpose of a flying buttress?
- 5.2 Why was the Amiens Cathedral such an important building?
- 5.3 Who was pseudo Dionysius art history?
- 5.4 What role did monasteries play in the world of art?
- 5.5 What is an effigy quizlet?
- 5.6 Who was the man who conceived the new Gothic style at St Denis?
- 5.7 What inspired Abbot Suger’s new style?
- 5.8 Who started the Gothic style?
- 5.9 How is stained glass made quizlet?
- 5.10 What story does the Bayeux Tapestry tell quizlet?
- 5.11 Which of the following were the Viking known for?
- 5.12 What role did the monks and nuns play in arts?
- 5.13 What original character did the mercenary replace in the image above quizlet?
- 5.14 What did pseudo-Dionysius inspire Abbot?
- 5.15 When did pseudo-Dionysius live?
- 5.16 Which is an example of Gothic style?
- 5.17 What was the reasoning behind the medieval practice where an artist’s name is rarely known?
- 5.18 Where did the Gothic style come from?
- 5.19 What was the Amiens Cathedral built for?
- 6 Which of the following was an innovation of Saint-Denis? a. sculpture b. architecture c. goldsmithing d. all of the above
- 7 Saint Denis Sculpture
- 8 Suger
- 9 Gothic: A Revolution of Light and Space
Which of the following was an innovation of saint-denis?
Velda Zieme posed the question. 5 out of 5 stars (29 votes) “Saint-Denis” was quickly transformed into the abbey church of a rapidly expanding monastic complex. The Abbot Suger reconstructed sections of the abbey church in the 12th century, including new structural and ornamental innovations into the process. In doing so, he is credited with creating the world’s first fully global economy. Gothic building The Gothic style is used in this structure. Gothic art was a type of medieval art that arose in Northern France in the 12th century AD as a result of the development of Gothic architecture at the same time.
Sculpture, panel painting, stained glass, frescoes, and illuminated manuscripts were some of the primary mediums used throughout the Gothic period.
What was an innovation of Saint-Denis?
Scholars now agree that the three portals at Saint-Denis were the first in a sequence of Early Gothic portails royaux, which began with the portals at Rouen. Twenty statue-columns, which are no longer standing, previously flanked the entrances of Saint-Denis, marking an architectural first. The presence of such column-figures, which mainly depicted regal figures, became a distinguishing feature of Early Gothic entrances.
What significant change took place in Abbey Church of Saintis?
What noteworthy changes took happened in the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis throughout the course of the centuries? The western facade has been enhanced by the addition of three portals. Who is the person represented in the photograph above?
What distinctively Gothic feature can be seen in the image below quizlet?
He wished to produce a piece of art that would be worthy of the church’s sacred treasures. On which part of the image below can you identify an uniquely “Gothic” feature? The world’s first real flying buttress.
What is special about Amiens Cathedral?
The cathedral is notable for the quality and quantity of early 13th-century Gothic art on its main west façade and south transept doorway, as well as a vast number of polychrome sculpture from subsequent eras throughout the church, despite the loss of most of its original stained glass. There were 17 questions that were connected.
What is the purpose of a flying buttress?
Arch supports for a church or other building’s outside wall that are externally arched. Flying buttresses (also known as flying buttresses) were employed in many Gothic cathedrals (see also cathedral); they allowed architects to construct extremely tall but comparably thin stone walls, allowing for a large proportion of the wall area to be covered with stained-glass windows.
Why was the Amiens Cathedral such an important building?
Support for a church or other building’s exterior wall that is arched in shape. A large number of Gothic cathedrals (see also cathedral) made use of flying buttresses, which allowed architects to construct extremely tall but relatively thin stone walls, allowing for a large number of stained-glass windows to be installed on their walls.
Who was pseudo Dionysius art history?
Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite (flourished c.
500), most likely aSyrian monk who went by the pseudonym of Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, wrote a series of Greek treatises and letters with the goal of uniting Neoplatonic philosophy with Christian theology and mystical experience, which were never published.
What role did monasteries play in the world of art?
What function did monasteries play in the realm of art and how did they influence it? Monasteries were the epicenters of artistic and intellectual activity. What were the differences between the Gospels of Charlemagne and the Ottonian manuscripts?
What is an effigy quizlet?
When it comes to the realm of art, what part did monasteries play? In the past, monasteries were hubs of creativity and study. What distinguishes the Gospels of Charlemagne from the Ottonian manuscripts is their style of presentation.
Who was the man who conceived the new Gothic style at St Denis?
5. Who was the guy responsible for the development of the new Gothic style at St. Denis? A)William the Conqueror is a historical figure.
What inspired Abbot Suger’s new style?
When it came to his designs, Abbot was greatly influenced by the elements of beauty and splendour, and he desired to honor his devotion to God and religion via his creative creations. Suger invented and constructed the concept of the flying buttress, which he devised in order to offer additional support to the tall walls that he utilised in his architectural projects.
Who started the Gothic style?
Around 1231, Hugues Libergier, a French Gothic architect, began working on the Abbey church of Saint Nicaise in Reims, where he first developed the style.
How is stained glass made quizlet?
What is the process of making stained glass? adding metallic oxides to sand and ash or lime, infusing at high temperatures, and removing the resulting product
What story does the Bayeux Tapestry tell quizlet?
What is the process of creating stained glass? adding metallic oxides to sand and ash or lime, infusing at high temperatures, and removing the resultant product
Which of the following were the Viking known for?
The period between the late eighth and mid-eleventh century is often referred to as the Viking Age in Scandinavian history. Trade, exploration, and warfare were all made possible by Viking ships, which were an intrinsic part of their culture and played a crucial role in their society.
What role did the monks and nuns play in arts?
What role did monks and nuns have in the development of the arts? The monks and nuns would seek out artists and bring them to the monastery so that they might put their skills to use.
What original character did the mercenary replace in the image above quizlet?
In the image above, whose original character did the mercenary take the place of? A second lady has arrived.
What did pseudo-Dionysius inspire Abbot?
What did Pseudo-Dionysius incite Abbot Suger to accomplish as a result of his inspiration? A.make changes to the design idea of the church. What was the number of persons that were involved in the stained glass technique, and what were their names?
When did pseudo-Dionysius live?
Dionysius is a fictional character created by the Greek mythology. Despite the fact that Pseudo-Dionysius lived in the late fifth and early sixth centuries C.E., his works were written in the style of St. Dionysius the Areopagite, who was a member of the Athenian judicial council (known as ‘the Areopagus’) in the first century C.E. and who was converted by St. Paul.
Which is an example of Gothic style?
Early Gothic architecture flourished between 1130 and 1200, with notable examples including the Abbey of St-Denis, Sens Cathedral, and Chartres Cathedral; Rayonnant Gothic architecture flourished between 1250 and 1370, with notable examples including the chapel of Sainte-Chapelle and Notre Dame; and Flamboyant Gothic architecture flourished between 1350 and 1550, with notable examples including the Abbey of St-Denis, Sens Cathedral, and Chartres Cathedral.
What was the reasoning behind the medieval practice where an artist’s name is rarely known?
What was the rationale behind the medieval tradition of having an artist’s name be known only to a few people? The thought process prevalent during this historical period was that art was made for the glory of God and not for the glory of the artist himself. What is the significance of the Edict of Milan, which was issued by Constantine? It was a Christian-oriented publication.
Where did the Gothic style come from?
Architectural and artistic styles associated with the Middle Ages were widespread in Europe from the mid-12th century and the early 16th century, with the Gothic style being the most prominent. Its architecture was very elaborate and complex, with tall structures, intricate aesthetics, vast interiors, and broad walls distinguishing it from the rest of the world.
What was the Amiens Cathedral built for?
Originally built to replace a smaller church that had burned down in 1218, Amiens Cathedral was commissioned by Bishop Evrard de Fouilloy.
Which of the following was an innovation of Saint-Denis? a. sculpture b. architecture c. goldsmithing d. all of the above
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Saint Denis Sculpture
| Introduction: Rebuilt and enlarged approximately four times from the 7th through 13th centuries, the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis realized its unique status as pioneer in Gothic architecture under the innovative guidance of Abbot Suger(1122-1151). Suger’s memoirs, chronicling these renovations of the Abbey Church between 1137-1144, form one of the most important documents of the Middle Ages in providing a first-hand look at the transition from the Late Romanesque to Gothic architecture in France. Above the Romanesque crypt with its massive walls and semi-circular arches supported by low, thick columns, the new choir built under Suger’s direction formed a double ambulatory with pointed arches and ribbed vaulting (fig.1). This lighter, skeletal design permitted increased elevation and freed the walls from a primary load-bearing capacity, allowing extensive use of stained glass windows in a higher, more spacious, and light-filled interior. Sculptures on the church portals, meanwhile, developedinto a level of figurative sophistication not seen since Late Antiquity (fig.3).Along with its role as the birthplace of Gothic architecture, the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis also continued as a protectorate of the monarchy and as the burial site of French kings spanning from the Merovingian era (AD 447-751;) to the later Bourbon dynasty (1589-1789 and 1814-1830). The rich sculptural art of the church includes both striking Biblical figures created during the Late Romanesque and Early Gothic era of Suger, and a notable series of Late Gothic tomb effigies of French rulers.[ Fig.1:The spacious double ambulatory ofSaint-Denis, enlarged by Abbot Suger with uniform ribbed vaulting ca. 1140-1144 (photo: Athena Review).The Legend of St. Denis and creation of the Abbey Church:According to a 9th century Carolingian legend, St. Denis, the first bishop of Lutetia(Roman Paris), was beheaded around AD 250 by Roman soldiers in Montmartre, but then walked away with his severed head in his hands beyond the center of Paris before dying. Various 5th-9th century legends say he was buried in a clandestine ceremony after his martyrdom near the Roman town ofCatolacus, about 11 km north of Paris. Rusticus and Eleutherius, companions of St. Denis referred to as the “Holy Martyrs” by Abbot Suger, may have been buried with him.In about AD 475, St. Denis was reburied in a Gallo-Roman cemetery at the eventual site of the monastery named for him. St. Genevi�ve, the patron saint of Paris, constructed the first church here to commemorate the life of St. Denis, whose burial site had begun to attract many pilgrims. This small Merovingian church was enlarged between 630-638 by Dagobert I, the official founder of Saint-Denis, who also established a Benedictine monastery to regulate pilgrimages.During the Carolingian era, the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis became one of the most renowned in France. Abbot Fulrad substantially rebuilt the church in 750-775. Many of Fulrad’s construction methods such as the piers of the Carolingian nave hark back to ancient Roman models (Bony 1983). On February 24, 754 Pope Stephen III consecrated Pepin the Short (714-768), at the abbey in the presence of his wife and sons, Charlemagne (the future Holy Roman Emperor) and Carloman. In this church, a martyrium, or crypt holding the remains of saints and martyrs as a shrine for prayer, was also added under the choir.When Suger became abbot of Saint-Denis in 1122, he began plans to renovate the old late 8th century Carolingian Abbey Church, which had become too small to hold the entire congregation on the main religious feast days. Unlike St. Bernard of Clairvaux, who believed that secular persons should be excluded from the house of God, Suger wished to welcome as great a crowd as possible. The abbey had also gained an increasingly prominent position in France as a result of its close ties with the French monarchy. Suger’s role as an advisor to Louis VI, “the Fat” (r.1108-1137) and Louis VII (r.1137-1180) as well as his appointment as regent during the Second Crusade (1147-1149) strengthened the position of the Abbey Church.TheFoire du Lendit, the largest market for merchants in France, was held in Saint-Denis, greatly improving the church’s financial situation. Granted royal recognition by King Louis VI in 1109, this market supported the development of a town around the abbey (Bussmann 1980). In particular, a donation of royal incomes from the lendit market by King Louis VI, a long-standing friend of Abbot Suger, facilitated plans for renewing the Abbey Church. Exterior of Saint-Denis: The innovative architectural style of the west fa�ade at Saint-Denis (fig.2), built between 1135-1140, was borrowed from Norman churches such as St. �tienne in Caen. The two bays with two flanking towers and chapels in the upper stories were consecrated on July 9, 1140. Although the massive fa�ade with its strong abutments and battlements upon the third level belongs to Norman and Romanesque architecture and is somewhat austere, its tri-partite arrangement would become the formula for most later Gothic churches (Williamson 1995). This involved three sculptured portals, three levels with different kinds of openings, and a crowning rose window flanked by two towers (only one was ever built at Saint-Denis).The entrances, with their free-standing jamb figures connecting the three portals to a visual and iconographic scheme, were much more complex than those of Romanesque church fa�ades. While, unfortunately, most of the original sculptural decoration at Saint-Denis was destroyed during the French Revolution, it appears that the twenty column figures of Old Testament kings, queens, and prophets were originally attached to the jambs or upright support of the fa�ade portals, eight along the central or Last Judgment portal, and six each along thenorth and south portals. The creation of a royal portal as well as the introduction of a statue, most likely Christ, on the trumeau or the central stone pillar of atwo-leaved portal had a powerful influence on later portal decorations.Surviving sculptural fragments include three heads in the Mus�e national du Moyen �ge (former Mus�e de Cluny; fig.3) as well as several original heads of apostles and kings from the Last Judgment (central) portal at the Mus�e du Louvre in Paris. These Old Testament figures not only represented early protagonists of Christendom, but also alluded to the divine rightof the French rulers, following inthe succession of biblical kings. Fig.2:West fa�ade of the Abbey Churchof Saint-Denis,ca.1135-1140 (photo:Athena Review). Suger also started the tradition of employing craftsmen from outside of the �le de-France. The more ornate sculptural fragments contrast sharply with the more primitive Romanesque art found in the Paris region at that time. For example, the head of a queen from the central portal, possibly the Queen of Sheba, shares stylistic parallels with a sculpture of Eve’s head at Autun Cathedral in Burgundy, attributed to the sculptor Giselbertus. Both share the same deep boring of their pupils, and ‘worm-like’ strands of hair, and can thus be dated to around 1135-1140. In contrast, the jamb figures of the north portal (ca. 1130-1135) resemble those found at the St. �tienne Cathedral in Toulouse (Languedoc), which have a similar posture with crossed legs, as well as decorative jeweled borders (Williamson 1995).The tympanum of the central portal, which closely resembles the earlier Romanesque style, was reserved for the dramatic theme of the Last Judgment, one of the most popular in Gothic cathedrals. Christ enthroned is flanked by the apostles and the Virgin Mary; below, the dead ascend from their coffins. The archivolts or decorated arch of the portal are filled with the twenty-four elders of the Apocalypse, and the doorposts with the Wise and Foolish Virgins – all to become standard themes in Gothic cathedrals. Fragments of two conjoined heads of the apostles and the two elders, now at the Louvre, reveal the Gothic concern for sculptural volume in the heavy treatment of the flesh and the typical feature of thick rimmed eyes. This portal also contains the original 12th century carvings of the Dove and the Lamb, as well as God and Christ.T he north portal’s tympanum was originally decorated with a mosaic ordered by Suger, which possibly depicted the Coronation of the Virgin (Williamson 1995). Suger might have been under the influence of the great reformer Abbot Desiderius’ activities at the Abbey of Montecassino (about 50 km south of Rome), which explains this unusual application of mosaic to the tympanum. Suger’s mosaic at Saint-Denis, nevertheless, remained the only Gothic example in France.The north doorway now contains a 19th century relief of the Martyrdom of St. Denis as well as a statue of the Virgin on the trumeau. Here St. Denis is portrayed in his final hours holding his decapitated head, near the original 12th century carvings of the signs of the Zodiac on the doorjambs. The south portal illustrates the Last Communion of St. Denis, with the original heads replaced in the 19th century. A sculpture of St. Denis, carved in a fully developed naturalistic style of the early 13th century, was once located on the gable. Recovery of the sculptural head of Moses and a prophet (fig.3) from the south portal, now in the Mus�e national du Moyen �ge at the H�tel de Cluny, suggests that another scene might have once occupied this space. The Labours of the Month on the south portal’s doorjambs date from 12thcentury. Fig.3:Head of a prophet, from a column on the south portal of the west fa�ade at Saint Denis, AD 1137-1140 (photo: Athena Review).The portal of the north transept, known as thePorte des Valois(fig.4) after the destroyed tomb of the Valois dynasty, also contained a richness of sculpture, now preserved at the Louvre. Although carved between 1160-1170, this portal was not erected until the 13th century. The sculptural program included thirty crowned figures in the voussoirs (truncated wedges making up the arch), framing the scene of the Martyrdom of Saint-Denis. Six statues of kings, variously interpreted as the elders of the Apocalypse, the kings of France, or vassals of St. Denis, occupied the door embrasures. These are comparable to the slightly later series of the Kings of Judah from the west fa�ade of Notre-Dame. In contrast to the statues of the royal portal, however, there is at Saint-Denis a much more delicate treatment of the flesh with narrow almond-shaped eyes and slender foreheads.Saint-Denis held several cloisters, at least one of which contained an interesting variety of Gothic art. The main cloister, constructed sometime after Suger’s death and destroyed ca. 1751, has yielded the only remaining intact column sculpture of a king from Saint-Denis. Now preserved at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, this intricately carved figure parallels sculptures on the west fa�ade at Chartres. The close resemblance to the north transept statues, moreover, suggests that both belonged to the same workshop. The identity of this figure may have been inscribed on the destroyed scroll that he once held. Other remains from Saint-Denis preserved at the Louvre include a fragment with the heads of three men carved with characteristic Gothic realism, and a capital decorated with interwoven foliage and fourharpies. Two abaci adorned with the Corinthian acanthus leaves dating to the middle of the 12th century, as well as the base of twin columns and a double capital, may have also belonged to the cloisters.Apart from the sculptural innovations at Saint-Denis, architectural additions made by Abbot Suger also initiated several trends of the Gothic tradition. The former oculus (small circular window without tracery) on the west fa�ade served asa precursor of the later Gothic rose window, one of the great innovations inwestern architectural history. When Pierre de Montreuil rebuilt the naves and transepts in the 13th century, the rose window occupied the north and south transepts as well as the open triforium below. In 1258, Notre-Dame of Paris replicated the beautiful design of Saint-Denis’ rose window, and incorporated the story of the Apocalypse in the eighty-six panels of stained glass in the upper chapel. The north transept was originally intended to contain two towers, butthe second tower was never added. The upper story on the north side contains other innovative features such asdouble span flying buttresses (ca. 1230), which allow for the increased height of the nave.[Fig.4:Porte des Valois,illustrating the Martyrdom of Saint-Denis, ca.1160-1170 (photo: Athena Review)].In contrast to the innovations of the west side, the exterior of the east end reflects a greater combination of Romanesque and Gothic features. The more conservative apse (ca. 1144) follows the Romanesque style with rounded windows and relieving, heavy arches around the crypt, where as the stained glass windows of the chapel belong more to the Gothic period. At the time of Suger’s death in 1151, the two ends of the church were still joined by 8th century construction.
References:Bony, J. 1983.French Gothic Architecture of the 12th and 13th centuries.Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, University of California Press.B�chsel, M. 1997.Die Geburt der Gotik. Abt Sugers Konzept f�r die Abteikirche Saint-Denis.Freiburg im Breisgau. Rombach.Bu�mann, Klaus. 1980. 1980.Paris und die Ile de France. Die Metropole und das Herzland Frankreichs.Von der antiken Lutetia bis zur Millionenstadt. K�ln, DuMont.Colboune, T.F. Morgan et al. 2003.Eyewitness Travel Guides: France.London, DK Publishing.Williamson, P. 1995.Gothic Sculpture.New Haven and London, Yale University Press.
This article appears on pages 30-32 of Vol.4 No.2 ofAthena Review.
A French abbot and counsellor to monarchs Louis VI and VII, Suger (born 1081, near Paris—died January 13, 1151), was essential in the development of Gothic architecture via his supervision of the rebuilding of the abbey church of Saint-Denis. Suger’s parents were peasants, and he was raised by them. The monks at the nearbyabbey of Saint-Denis (the patron saint of France) recognized his extraordinary brilliance as a kid, and he was sent there in 1091 to continue his education. Louis Capet, a lad his own age who was his closest friend and schoolmate at the monastery, was his closest friend and schoolmate.
- Suger rose through the ranks to become secretary to the abbot of Saint-Denis and a trusted advisor to the monarch.
- This quiz delves into the world of religions and civilizations, covering everything from temples to festivals.
- As a result of the strong, ordered administration of the Norman monarch, which contrasted with the chaotic feudalism of France, Suger was extremely pleased with it.
- Suger believed that the fate of his company and the destiny of the French monarchy were inextricably linked.
- Suger also believed that the king had the ability and responsibility to defend the peasants and the middle class.
- He had an opportunity shortly after to put his idea about the cementing power of the symbolic theory of Saint-Denis to the test, which he did successfully.
- When Louis went into war, he was accompanied by the Oriflamme, the banner of Saint-Denis, which was ordinarily displayed in the chapel along with the saint’s relics.
The army of Louis and the Oriflamme was so overwhelming that Henry V was forced to flee without a fight.
Adam’s administration was infamous for the monks’ overly secular behavior, which earned them a reputation for being a source of controversy.
Suger worked closely with Bernard, who at the time was a close counsel to the pope and the most powerful spiritual leader in Europe, on these and many other issues.
As a result, after King Louis’s death in 1137, his successor, Louis VII, rejected Suger’s role as primary adviser, and Suger devoted the next five years of his life to finishing the reconstruction of the cathedral of Saint-Denis, which had fallen into disrepair.
These innovations include an original use of the pointed (rather than round) arch and the ribbed vault, as well as extensive use of stained glass, including a rose window on the facade.
In 1142, Louis took estates that belonged to Thibaut, the count of Champagne, who was his most powerful subordinate.
Théophile Thibaut had always been important to the French monarchy, and the young king was waging a fierce and foolish fight against the strong Thibaut at the time.
It was signed during the dedication ceremony of the church of Saint-Denis, which is considered an architectural wonder.
Suger was vehemently opposed to this and attempted unsuccessfully to persuade the king to change his decision.
The Second Crusade began on June 11, 1147, with the departure of King Louis and Queen Eleanor.
The Crusade was a colossal failure, but Suger maintained effective control at home, despite the significant financial drain on the resources at his disposal.
When Louis returned from the Crusade in 1149, many people predicted that Suger would refuse to surrender the crown, but they were proven wrong by history.
Suger himself, together with Bernard, began making preparations for a new crusade in 1150. Suger, however, became ill with malaria in 1150, just as the project was about to get underway. In the month of January 1151, he passed away. Anne F. Rockwell is a writer and artist who lives in New York City.
Gothic: A Revolution of Light and Space
Gothic architecture was created, rather than evolving over time. History teaches us that nothing happens in a vacuum. Consequently, it is sometimes impossible to pinpoint the beginning of a given style or era in a specific location or historical period. The Gothic style of architecture, on the other hand, is something of an exception to this norm. The Basilica of St. Denis, located on the outskirts of Paris, was the site of the first construction in the Gothic style. The flying buttresses of the Cathedral of St.
The Gothic style developed as a result of a need for natural light.
Denis, it is here that we see them all come together in one place at the same time.
Denis, the Abbott Suger, who served as the cathedral’s patron.
Suger, like many others of his period, associated light with the Divine.
It is engraved in the nave (the central portion of the cathedral) of St.
When it comes to stone buildings, the weight of the arches and roof has a tendency to force the walls out to the sides.
In addition, the supports were thicker, which had the effect of segmenting the internal space; as a result, windows had to be smaller, and therefore, interior light was restricted.
The interior of St.
The weight was pushed down toward the ground by the segmented arch, rather than out onto the walls, which was the intended result.
Walls that were thinner and supported by exterior buttresses enabled the installation of bigger sections of glazing.
Increased glass and ribbed vaults allowed the structure to appear physically higher while also allowing the various internal rooms to flow into one another.
This, combined with the abundance of natural light, helped to draw the viewer’s attention upward, giving the impression of a bigger space.
In the same way that the mass manufacturing of steel, among other improvements, enabled the emergence of what we now know as contemporary architecture, the mass manufacture of plastics has enabled the emergence of biotechnology.
Gothic architecture was the Open Plan Architecture of its day — and it was quite popular.
While there is some truth to this, it is also true that every new cathedral under construction in Western Europe was built in the Gothic style within 50 years of its completion.
They have heavy, thick walls with small windows that are adjacent to lighter, thinner walls that are ornamented with enormous windows – all inside the same structure!
Check out our t-shirt featuring the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, which is available in both blueprint and black line versions.